Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Influence of field bed position, ground surface color, mycorrhizal fungi, and high root-zone temperature in woody plant container production

  • 49 Accesses

  • 4 Citations

Abstract

High root-zone temperatures can stress plants and reduce nursery productivity of container produced crops. Field studies were conducted to study position of containers in field beds, ground surface color, mycorrhizal fungi and high root-zone temperatures in the production of selected woody plants. Root-zone temperature profiles in containers were established to determine nursery production conditions for white and black ground bed surfaces. White surfaces increased container medium temperatures in beds of plants with open canopies by 2–4°C compared to full canopied plants. Under field conditions with container medium temperatures as high as 40–50°C, the open canopiedBerberis thunbergii DC. ‘Atropurpurea’,Pinus eldarica Medw. andBuxus microphylla Seibold and Zucc. were more susceptible to temeprature stress compared to the more close canopiedPittosporum tobira (Thunb.) Ait. ‘Wheeler's dwarf’. When compared to controls,P. tobira colonized with mycorrhizal fungi [Glomus etunicatus Baker and Gerd. andGlomus fasciculatum (Thax.sensu Gerd.) Gerd. and Trappe] had increased shoot growth in all bed areas except the western exposure, and increased root growth in western and eastern bed regions. Greatest root damage generally occurred in containers of colonized and noncolonizedB. thunbergii in southern and western bed exposures. Mycorrhizal colonization did not improve plant growth of the more high temperature susceptibleB. thunbergii.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Allen E B and Allen M F 1980 Natural re-establishment of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae following stripmine reclamation in Wyoming. J. Appl. Ecol. 17, 139–147.

  2. Bohm W 1979 Methods of Studying Root Systems. Springer-Verlag., Inc., Berlin.

  3. Davidson H, Mecklenberg R and Peterson C 1988 Nursery Management: Administration and Culture. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.

  4. Fretz T A 1971 Influence of physical conditions on summer temperatures in nursery containers. HortScience 6, 400–401.

  5. Ingram D L 1981 Characterization of temperature fluctuations and woody plant growth in white ploybags and conventional black containers. HortScience 16, 762–763.

  6. Ingram D L and Buchanan D W 1981 Measurement of direct heat injury of roots of three woody plants. Hort Science 16, 769–771.

  7. Ingram D L and Buchanan D W 1984 Lethal high temeperatures for roots of three citrus rootstocks. J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 109, 189–193.

  8. Ingram D L, Webb P G and Biggs R H 1986 Interactions of exposure time and temperature on thermostability and protein content of excisedIllicium parviflorum roots. Plant and Soil 96, 69–76.

  9. Johnson C R and Ingram D L 1984Pittosporum tobira response to container medium temeprature. Hort Science 19, 524–525.

  10. Kramer P J and Kozlowski T T 1979 Physiology of Woody Plants. Academic Press, Inc., New York.

  11. Maronek D M, Hendrix J W and Kiernan J 1981 Mycorrhizal fungi and their importance in horticultural crop production.In Hort. Rev. Ed. J Janick, AVI Publishing Co., Westport, Connecticut.

  12. Marx D H and Bryan W C 1971 Influence of ectomycorrhizae on survival and growth of aseptic seedlings of loblolly pine at high temperature. Forest Sci. 17, 37–41.

  13. Marx D H, Bryan W C and Davey C B 1970 Influence of temperature on aseptic synthesis of ectomycorrhizae byThelephlora terrestris andPisolithus tinctorius on loblolly pine. Forest Sci. 16, 424–431.

  14. Phillips J M and Hayman D S 1970 Improved procedures for clearing roots and staining parasitic and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for rapid assessment of infection. Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soc. 55, 158–160.

  15. Proctor J T A and Crowe A D 1983 Response of apply growth and flowering to shade and ground covers. Hort Science 18, 470–472.

  16. Schenck N C 1982 Methods and Principles of Mycorrhizal Research. The American Phytopathological Society. St. Paul, Minnesota.

  17. Schenck N C and Schroder V N 1974 Temperature response ofEndogene mycorrhiza on soybean roots. Mycologia 66, 600–605.

  18. Snedecor N C and Cochran P C 1967 Statistical Methods, 6th edition. Iowa State Press, Ames, Iowa.

  19. Sweatt M E and Davies F T Jr 1984 Mycorrhizae, water relations, growth and nutrient uptake of geraniums grown under moderately high phosphorus regimes. J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 109, 210–213.

  20. Whitcomb C E 1980 The effects of containers and production bed color on root temperatures. Am. Nurseryman 151, 65–67.

  21. Wong T L, Harris R W and Fissell R E 1971 Influence of high soil temperatures on five woody plant species. J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 96, 80–82.

  22. Young K and Hammett K R W 1980 Temperature patterns in exposed black polyethylene containers. Agric. Meterolol. 21, 165–172.

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Newman, S.E., Davies, F.T. Influence of field bed position, ground surface color, mycorrhizal fungi, and high root-zone temperature in woody plant container production. Plant Soil 112, 29–35 (1988). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02181749

Download citation

Key words

  • Buxus microphylla
  • Berberis thunbergii ‘Atropurpurea’
  • Glomus fasciculatum
  • Glomus etunicatus
  • Pinus eldarica
  • Pittosporum tobira ‘Wheeler's dwarf’
  • root stress