Plant and Soil

, Volume 58, Issue 1–3, pp 177–204 | Cite as

Nitrogen and plant production

  • R. Novoa
  • R. S. Loomis
Article

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aslam, M., Huffaker, R. C., Rains, D. W. and Rao, K. P. 1979 Influence of light and ambient CO2 concentration on nitrate assimilation by intact barley seedlings. Plant Physiol. 63; 1205–1209.Google Scholar
  2. Ashley, D. A., Jackson, W. A. and Volk, R. J. 1975 Nitrate uptake and assimilation to wheat seedlings during initial exposure by nitrate. Plant Physiol. 55, 1102–1106.Google Scholar
  3. Aung, L. H. 1974 Root-shoot relationships. In: Carson, E. W. (ed.) The Plant Root and Its Environment. University Press of Virginia, Charlotteville, p. 29–61.Google Scholar
  4. Austin, R. B., Ford, M. A., Edrich, J. A. and Blackwell, R. D. 1976 The nitrogen economy of winter wheat. J. Agr. Sci., Camb. 88: 159–167.Google Scholar
  5. Barley, K. P. 1970. The configuration of the root system in relation to nutrient uptake. Adv. Agronomy 22: 159–201.Google Scholar
  6. Barta A. 1976 Transport and distribution of CO2 assimilate inLolium perenne in response to varying nitrogen supply to halves of a divided root system. Plant Physiol. 38: 48–52.Google Scholar
  7. Bartholomew, W. V. and Hiltbold, A. E. 1952 Recovery of fertilizer N by oats. Soil Sci. 73: 193–201.Google Scholar
  8. Bassioni, N. H. 1971 Temperature and pH interaction in NO3 uptake. Plant and Soil 35: 445–448.Google Scholar
  9. Benzian, B. and Lane, P 1979 Some relationships between grain yield and grain protein of wheat experiments in South-East England and comparisons with such relationships elsewhere. J. Sci. Food. Agr. 30, 59–70.Google Scholar
  10. Bhatia, C. R. and Rabson, R. 1976 Bioenergetic considerations in cereal breeding for protein improvement. Science 194, 1418–1421.Google Scholar
  11. Blackwood, G. C. and Hallam, R. 1979 Nitrate reductase activity in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). II. The correlation with yield. New Phytol. 82, 417–425.Google Scholar
  12. Brouwer, R. 1954 The regulating influence of transpiration and suction tension in water and salt uptake by roots of intactVicia faba plants. Acta Bot. Nederland. 3, 264–312.Google Scholar
  13. Brouwer, R. 1962a Distribution of dry matter in the plant. Neth. J. Agr. Sci. 10, 361–376.Google Scholar
  14. Brouwer, R. 1962b Nutritive influences on the distribution of dry matter in the plants. Neth. J. Agr. Sci. 10, 399–408.Google Scholar
  15. Brouwer, R. 1965 Water movement across the root. In: Symp. Soc. Exp. Biology 19, 131–149.Google Scholar
  16. Bruetsch, T. F. and Estes, G. O. 1976 Genotype variation in nutrient uptake efficiency in corn. Agron. J. 68, 521–523.Google Scholar
  17. Burström, H. 1943 Photosynthesis and assimilation of nitrate by wheat leaves. Ann. Royal Agr. Coll. Sweden 11, 1–50.Google Scholar
  18. Canvin, D. T. 1976 Interrelationships between carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism. In: Genetic Improvement of Seed Protein. Proc. of a Workshop, 1974. p. 172–195. Natl. Acad. Sci., Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  19. Chandler, R. F. 1969 Plant morphology and stand geometry in relation to nitrogen. In: Eastin, J. D., Haskins, F. A., Sullivan C. Y. and Van Bavel C. H. M., (eds.), Physiological Aspects of Crop Yields, pp. 265–289. Am. Soc. Agron. Madison, Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  20. Chantarotwong, W., Huffaker, R. C., Miller, B. L. and Granstedt, R. C. 1976In vivo nitrate reduction in relation to nitrate uptake, nitrate content andin vitro nitrate reductase activity in intact barley seedlings. Plant Physiol. 57, 519–522.Google Scholar
  21. Coic, Y. 1971 Influence dumetabolism de NO3 dans les racines sur l'etat nutritional de la plant. In: Samish, R. H. (ed.), Recent advances in Plant Nutrition. p. 217–227. Gordon and Breach Sci. Publ., New York.Google Scholar
  22. Cook, M. G. and Evans, L. T. 1976 Effect of size geometry and distance from source on the distribution of assimilates in wheat. In: Wardlaw, I. F. and Passioura J. B. (eds.), Transport and Transfer Process in Plants. p. 393–400. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  23. Daigger, L. A. and Sander, D. H. 1976 Nitrogen availability to wheat as affected by depth of nitrogen placement. Agron. J. 68, 524–526.Google Scholar
  24. Dalling, M. J., Halloran, G. M. and Wilson, J. H. 1975 The relation between nitrate reductase activity and grain nitrogen productivity in wheat. Austr. J. Agr. Res. 26, 1–10.Google Scholar
  25. Dimitrenko, P. A., Thomashevskaya, Y. G., Golovashchuk, Z. T., Insshin, N. A., Semonova, N. K. and Dan'ko, A. Y. 1977 Utilization of fertilizer nitrogen by winter wheat and sugar beet under different fertilizer application conditions. Soviet Soil Sci. 9, 540–551.Google Scholar
  26. Donovan, G. R., Lee, J. W. and Hill, R. D. 1977 Compositional changes in the developing grain of high and low protein wheats. I. Chemical composition. Cereal Chem. 54, 638–645.Google Scholar
  27. Edwards, J. H. and Barber, S. A. 1976 Nitrogen flux into corn roots as influenced by shoot requirement. Agron. J. 689, 471–473.Google Scholar
  28. Epstein, E. 1972 Mineral Nutrition of Plants. Principles and Perspectives. John Wiley and Sons, New York. 412 p.Google Scholar
  29. Evans, L. T., Wardlaw, J. F. and Fischer, R. A. 1975 the physiological basis of crop yield. In: Evans, L. T. (ed.). Crop Physiology. p. 327–355. Cambridge Univ. Press. 374 p.Google Scholar
  30. Evans, L. T. and Wardlaw, I. F. 1976 Aspects if the comparative physiology of grain yield in cereals. Adv. Agron. 28, 301–359.Google Scholar
  31. Ezeta, F. H. and Jackson, W. A. 1975 Nitrate translocation by detopped corn seedlings. Plant Physiol. 56, 48–156.Google Scholar
  32. Fernandez, R. and Laird, R. T. 1959 Yield and protein content of wheat in central Mexico as affected by available soil moisture and nitrogen fertilization. Agron. J. 51, 33–36.Google Scholar
  33. Gasser, J. K. R. and Iordanou, I. G. 1967 Effects of ammonium sulphate and calcium nitrate on the growth, yield and nitrogen uptake of barley, wheat and oats. J. Agr. Sci. 68, 307–316.Google Scholar
  34. Goodman, J. J. 1977 Selection for nitrogen responses inLolium. Ann. Bot. 41, 243–256.Google Scholar
  35. Grant, M. N. and McCalla, A. G. 1949 Yield and protein content of random selections from single crosses. Can. J. Res. 27, 230–240.Google Scholar
  36. Greenwood, E. A. N. 1976 Nitrogen stress in plants. Adv. Agron. 28, 1–33.Google Scholar
  37. Gregory, F. G. and Sen, P. K. 1937 Physiological studies in plant nutrition. VI. The relation of repiration rate to carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism of barley leaf as determined by nitrogen. Ann. Bot. 1, 521–561.Google Scholar
  38. Hageman, R. H., Lambert, R., Loussaert, D., Dalling, M. and Klepper, L. A. 1976 Nitrate and nitrite reductase as factors limiting protein synthesis. In: Genetic Improvement of Seed Protein. Proc. of a Workshop, 1974. p. 103–131. Natl. Acad. Sci. Washington, D. C.Google Scholar
  39. Hallmark, W. B. and Huffaker, R. C. 1978 The influence of ambient nitrate, temperature and light on nitrate assimilation in sudan grass seedlings. Physiol. Plant. 44, 147–152.Google Scholar
  40. Halse, N. J., Greenwood, E. A. N., Lapins, P. and Boundy, C. A. P. 1969 An analysis of nitrogen deficiency on the growth and yield of Western Australia wheat crop. Aust. J. Agr. Res. 20, 987–998.Google Scholar
  41. Hamid, A. 1972 Efficiency of N uptake by wheat as affected by time and rate of application using N15 labelled ammonium sulphate and sodium nitrate. Plant and Soil 37, 389–340.Google Scholar
  42. Harper, J. E. and Hageman, R. H. 1972 Canopy and seasonal profiles of nitrate reductase in soybeans (Glycine max L. Merr.). Plant Physiol. 49, 146–154.Google Scholar
  43. Hewitt, E. J. 1963 The essential nutrient elements, requirements and interaction in plants. In: Steward, F. C. (ed.), Plant Physiology, a Treatise. Vol. III, Chapter 2. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  44. Hewitt, E. J., Hucklesby, D. P. and Notton, D. A. 1976 Nitrate metabolism. In: Bonner, J. and Varner, J. E. (eds.) Plant Biochemistry. p. 633–681. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  45. Higinbotham, N. 1973 The mineral absorption process in plants. Bot. Rev. 39, 15–69.Google Scholar
  46. Holmes, D. P. 1973 Inflorescence development of semidwarf and standard height wheat cultivars in different photoperiod and nitrogen treatements. Can. J. Bot. 51, 941–956.Google Scholar
  47. Hucklesby, D. P. C., Brown, M., Howell, S. E. and Hageman, R. H. 1971 Late spring applications of nitrogen for efficient utilization and enhanced production of grain protein of wheat. Agron. J. 63, 274–276.Google Scholar
  48. Huffaker, R. C. and Rains, D. W. 1978 Factors influencing nitrate acquistion by plants; assimilation and fate of reduced nitrogen. In: Nielson, D. R. and McDonald, J. G. (eds.), Nitrogen in the Environment. Vol. 2, pp. 1–43. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  49. Huffaker, R. C. and Peterson, L. W. 1974 Protein turnover in plants and possible means of its regulation. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 25, 363–392.Google Scholar
  50. Hylmo, R. 1953 Transpiration and ion absorption. Physiol. Plant. 6, 333–405.Google Scholar
  51. Jackson, W. A., Flesher, D., and Hageman, R. H. 1973 Nitrate uptake by dark-grown corn seedlings: some characteristics of apparent induction. Plant Physiol. 51, 120–127.Google Scholar
  52. Johnson, V. A., Schmidt, J. W., Hattern, P. J., and Havnold, A. 1963 Agronomic and quality characteristics of high protein F2 derived families from a Soft Red Winter-Hard Red Winter wheat cross. Crop Sci. 3, 7–10.Google Scholar
  53. Kolderup, F. 1978 Application of different temperatures in three growth phases of wheat. II: Effects on ear size and seed setting. Acta. Agr. Scand. 29, 11–16.Google Scholar
  54. Kramer, J. 1969 The absorption of water by roots. In: Handbuch der Pflanzernahrung und Dungung. pp. 204–234. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  55. Kramer, T. 1979 Environmental and genetic variation for protein content in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Euphyt. 28, 209–218.Google Scholar
  56. Langer, R. H. M. and Hanif, M. 1973 A study of floret development in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Ann. Bot. 37, 743–751.Google Scholar
  57. Langer, R. H. M., and Liew, F. K. Y. 1973 Effect of varying nitrogen supply at different stages of the reproductive phase on spikelet and grain production and on grain nitrogen of wheat. Aust. J. Agr. Res. 24, 647–656.Google Scholar
  58. Ledent, J. F. 1977 Relation entre rendement par epi characters morphologiques a maturité chez diverses variétés de ble d'hiver (Triticum aestivum L.) Ann. Agron. 28, 391–407.Google Scholar
  59. Lemaire, F. 1975 Action comparée de l'alimentation azotée sur la croissance due système racinaire et des parties aeriennes des vegetaux. Ann. Agron. 26, 59–74.Google Scholar
  60. Leopold, A. C. 1961 Senescene in plant development. Science 134, 1727–1732.Google Scholar
  61. Loomis, R. S., and Gerakis, P. A. 1975 Productivity of agricultural ecosystems. In: Cooper, J. P. (ed.), Photosynthesis and Productivity in Different Environments. Int. Biol. Prog. Vol. 3 p. 145–172. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.Google Scholar
  62. Loomis, R. S. and Williams, W. A. 1969 Productivity and the morphology of crop stands: patterns with leaves. In Eastin, J. D., Haskin, F. A., Sullivan, C. Y., and van Bavel, C. H. M. (eds.) Physiological Aspects of Crop Yield. p. 27–47. Am. Soc. Agron. Madison, Wisc.Google Scholar
  63. Luxmoore, R. J., and Millington, R. J. 1971 Growth of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) in relation to water, nitrogen and light intensity. Plant and Soil 34, 561–574.Google Scholar
  64. Makunga, O. H. D., Pearman, I., Thomas, S. M. and Thorne, G. N. 1978 Distribution of photosynthate produced and after anthesis in tall and semi-dwarf winter wheat, as affected by nitrogen fertilizer. Ann. Appl. Biol. 88, 429–437.Google Scholar
  65. Martin, C. and Thimann, K. V. 1972 The role of protein synthesis in the senescene of leaves. I. The formation of proteases. Plant Physiol. 49, 64–71.Google Scholar
  66. McDowall, F. D. H. 1972 Growth kinetics of Marquis wheat. III: Nitrogen dependence. Can. J. Bot. 50, 1749–1761.Google Scholar
  67. McKee, H. S. 1962 Nitrogen Metabolism in Plants. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 728 pp.Google Scholar
  68. McNeal, F. A., Berg, M. A. and Watson, C. A. 1966 Nitrogen and dry matter in five spring wheat varieties at successive stages of development. Agron. J. 58, 605–608.Google Scholar
  69. McNeal, F. N., Berg, M. A., Brown, P. L. and McGuire, C. F. 1971 Productivity and quality response of five spring wheat genotypes,Triticum aestivum L., to nitrogen feretilizer. Agron. J. 63, 908–910.Google Scholar
  70. Medina, E. 1970 Effect of nitrogen supply and light intensity during growth on the photosynthetic capacity and carboxydismutase activity of leaves ofAtriplex patula sp.hastata. Yearbook of the Carnegie Institution. p. 551–559.Google Scholar
  71. Metivier, J. J. and Dale, J. E. 1977 The effects of grain nitrogen and applied nitrate on growth, photosynthesis and protein content of the first leaf of barley cultivars. Ann. Bot. 41, 1287–1296.Google Scholar
  72. Miflin, B. J. and Lea, P. J. 1977 Amino Acid Metabolism. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 28, 299–329.Google Scholar
  73. Milthorpe, F. L. and Moorby, J. 1974 An Introduction to Crop Physiology. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, U. K. 202 p.Google Scholar
  74. Minotti, P. L., Williams, D. C. and Jackson, A. 1969 The influence of ammonium on nitrate reduction in wheat seedlings. Planta 86, 267–271.Google Scholar
  75. Murata, Y. 1969 Physiological responses to nitrogen in plants. In: Eastin, J. D., Haskins, F. A., Sullivan, C. Y. and Van Bavel, C. H. M. (eds.), Physiological Aspects of Crop Yield. pp. 235–263. Am. Soc. Agron., Madison, Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  76. Neales, T. F., Anderson, M. J. and Wardlaw, J. F. 1963 The role of the leaves in the accumulation of nitrogen by wheat during ear development. Aust. J. Agr. Res. 14, 725–36.Google Scholar
  77. Nicholas, J. C., Harper, J. E. and Hageman, R. H. 1976 Nitrate reductase activity in soybean (Glycine max. L. Merr.). I. Effect of light and temperature. Plant Physiol. 58, 731–735.Google Scholar
  78. Novoa, R. 1979 A preliminary dynamic model of nitrogen metabolism in higher plants. Ph.D. Diss. University of California, Davis, 202 pp.Google Scholar
  79. Osman, A. M. and Milthorpe, F. L. 1971 Photosynthesis of wheat leaves in relation to age, illumination and nutrient supply. II: Results. Photosynthetica 5, 61–70.Google Scholar
  80. Pate, J. S. 1966 Photosynthesizing leaves and nodulated roots as donors of carbon to protein of shoot of the field pea (Pisum arvense L.) Ann. Bot. 30, 93–109.Google Scholar
  81. Pate, J. S. 1973 Uptake, assimilation and transport of nitrogen compounds by plants. Soil Biol. Biochem. 5, 109–119.Google Scholar
  82. Pate, J. S., Layzell, D. B. and McNeil, D. L. 1979 Modeling the transport and utilization of carbon and nitrogen in a nodulated legume. Plant Physiol. 63, 730–737.Google Scholar
  83. Pearman, I., Thomas, S. M. and Thorne, G. N. 1977 Effects of nitrogen fertilizer on growth and yield of spring wheat. Ann. Bot. 41, 93–108.Google Scholar
  84. Pearman, I., Thomas, S. M. and Thorne, G. N. 1978 Effects of nitrogen fertilizer on the distribution of photosynthate during growth of spring wheat. Ann. Bot. 42, 91–99.Google Scholar
  85. Penning de Vries, F. W. T. 1975 The cost of maintenance processes in plant cells. Ann. Bot. 39, 77–92.Google Scholar
  86. Penning de Vries, F. W. T., Brunsting, A. H. M. and van Laar, H. H. 1974 Products, requirements and efficiency of biosynthesis; A quantitative approach. J. Theor. Biol. 45, 339–377.Google Scholar
  87. Pino, I. 1979 Economia del nitrogeno en cultivares de trigo (Triticum aestivum L.) y triticales (Triticosecale sp.) Magister Sc., Thesis. Escuela Agronomia, Universidad Catolica de Chile. Santiago. 57 p.Google Scholar
  88. Pitman, M. G. 1977 Ion transport into the xylem. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 28, 71–88.Google Scholar
  89. Porter, K. B., Atkins, I. M. Gilmore, E. C., Lahr, K. A. and Scotting, P. 1964 Evaluation of short stature winter wheats (Triticum aestivum L.) for production under Texas conditions. Agron. J. 56, 393–396.Google Scholar
  90. Pushman, F. M. and Bingham, J. 1976 The effect of a granular nitrogen fertilizer and a foliar spray urea on the yield and breadmaking quality of winter wheats. J. Agr. Sci. Camb. 87, 281–292.Google Scholar
  91. Rabson, R., Bhatia, C. R. and Mitra, R. K. 1978 Crop productivity, grain protein and energy. In: Seed Protein Improvement by Nuclear Techniques Panel Proceedings. p. 3–20 IAEA. Vienna.Google Scholar
  92. Radin, J. 1975 Differential regulation of nitrate reductase induction in roots and shoots of cotton plants. Plant Physiol. 55, 178–179.Google Scholar
  93. Radin, J. 1977 Contribution of the root system to nitrate assimilation in whole cotton plants. Aust. J. Plant. Physiol. 4, 811–819.Google Scholar
  94. Radin, J. 1978 A physiological basis for the division of nitrate assimilation between roots and leaves. Plant Sci. Letters 13, 21–25.Google Scholar
  95. Rains, D. W. 1968 Kinetics and energetics of light-enhanced potassium absorption by corn leaf tissue. Plant Physiol. 43, 394–400.Google Scholar
  96. Raper, C. D., Parsons, L. R. Patterson, D. T. and Kramer, P. 1977 Relationship between growth and nitrogen accumulation for vegetative cotton and soybean plants. Bot. Gaz. 138(2), 129–137.Google Scholar
  97. Rao, K. P. and Rains, D. W. 1976a Nitrate absorption by barley. I: Kinetics and energetics. Plant Physiol. 57, 55–58.Google Scholar
  98. Rao, K. P. and Rains, D. W. 1976b Nitrate absorption by barley. II: Influence of nitrate reductase activity. Plant Physiol. 57, 59–62.Google Scholar
  99. Raven, J. A. and Smith, F. A. 1976 Nitrogen assimilation and transport in vascular land plants in relation to intracellular pH regulation. New Phytol. 76, 415–431.Google Scholar
  100. Rojas, Carlos 1979 Modelo simplifacado para estimar los requerimientos de nitrogeno en arroz. Magister Sc. Thesis. Escuela Agronomia, Universidad Catolica de Chile. Santiago. 62 p.Google Scholar
  101. Shaner, D. L. and Boyer, J. S. 1976a Nitrate reductase activity in masize leaves. I: Regulation by nitrate flux. Plant Physiol. 58, 499–504.Google Scholar
  102. Shaner, D. L. and Boyer, J. S. 1976b. Nitrate reductase activity in maize leaves. II. Regulation by nitrate flux at low leaf water potential. Plant Physiol. 58, 505–509.Google Scholar
  103. Schuurman, J. J. and Knot, L. 1974 Effect of nitrogen on root and shoot ofLolium multiflorum var.westerworldium Neth. J. Agr. Sci. 22, 82–88.Google Scholar
  104. Shokr. E. S. and Stolen, O. 1979 Aspects in protein improvement in spring wheat. In: The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University Yearbook 1979. Denmark Arsskrift. p. 107–122.Google Scholar
  105. Sinclair, T. R. and De Wit, C. T. 1975 Comparative analysis of photosynthate and nitrogen requirements in the production of seed by various crops. Science 89, 565–567.Google Scholar
  106. Spiertz, J. H. J. 1977 The influence of temperature and light intensity on grain growth in relation to carbohydrate and nitrogen economy of the wheat plant. Neth. J. Agr. Sci. 25, 182–197.Google Scholar
  107. Spiertz, J. H. J. and Ellen, J. 1978 Effects of nitrogen on crop development and grain growth of winter wheat in relation to assimilation and utilization of assimilates and nutrients. Neth. J. Agr. Sci. 25, 210–231.Google Scholar
  108. Spiertz, J. H. J. and van der Haar, H. 1978 Differences in grain growth, crop photosynthesis and distribution of assimilates between semi-dwarf and standard cultivars of winter wheat. Neth. J. Agr. Sci. 26, 233–249.Google Scholar
  109. Spratt, E. D. and Gasser, J. K. R. 1970a Effects of fertilizer nitrogen and water supply on the distribution of dry matter and nitrogen between the different parts of wheat. Can. J. Plant Sci. 50, 613–625.Google Scholar
  110. Spratt, E. D. and Gasser, J. K. R. 1970b Effect of ammonium and nitrate form of nitrogen and restricted water supply on growth and nitrogen uptake of wheat. Can. J. Soil Sci. 50, 263–273.Google Scholar
  111. Stanford, G. and Hunter, H. 1973 Nitrogen requirement of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties Blue-Boy and Red Coat. Agron. J. 65, 442–447.Google Scholar
  112. Tanaka, A. 1958 Studies on the physiological characteristics and significance of rice leaves in relation to their position in the stem. J. Sci. Soil Manure, Japan. 29, 327–333.Google Scholar
  113. Tanaka, K., Kawano, K. and Yamaguchi, J. 1966 Photosynthesis, respiration and plant type of the tropical rice plant. Intl. Rice Research Inst. Tech. Bull. 7, 1–46.Google Scholar
  114. Terman, G. L., Ramig, R. E., Dreier, A. F. and Olson, R. A. 1969 Yield: protein relationships in wheat grain, as affected by nitrogen and water. Agron. J. 61, 755–759.Google Scholar
  115. Thomas, S. M., Thorne, G. N. and Pearman, I. 1978 Effect of nitrogen on growth, yield and photorespiratory activity in spring wheat. Ann. Bot. 42, 827–837.Google Scholar
  116. Thompson, Rex K., Jackson, E. B. and Gebert, J. R. 1975 Irrigated wheat production response to water and nitrogen fertilizer. Univ. Arizona Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bull. 229.Google Scholar
  117. Thorne, G. N. 1974 Physiology of grain yield of wheat and barley. Rep. Rothamsted Exp. Sta. 1973. Part 2. p. 5–25.Google Scholar
  118. Thorne, G. N., Ford, M. A. and Watson, D. J. 1968 Growth, development and yield of spring wheat in artificial climates. Ann. Bot. 32, 425–446.Google Scholar
  119. Tinker, P. B. 1969 The transport of ions in the soil around plant roots. In: Rorison, I. J. (ed.), Ecological aspects of the mineral nutrition of plants. p. 135–147. Blackwell Sci. Publ., Oxford, U. K. 484 p.Google Scholar
  120. Troughton, A. 1977 The rate of growth and partitioning of assimilates in young grass plants. A mathematical model. Ann. Bot. 41, 553–565.Google Scholar
  121. Van den Honert, T. H. and Hooymans, J. J. M. 1955 On the absorption of nitrate by maize in water culture. Acta Bot. Neerl. 4, 376–384.Google Scholar
  122. Van Keulen, H. 1977 Nitrogen requirements of rice with special reference to Java. Contr. Centr. Res. Inst. Agric. Bogor (Indonesia No. 30. 67 p.Google Scholar
  123. Watanabe, H. and Yoshida, S. 1970 Effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on photophosphorylation in rice in relation to the photosynthetic rate of single leaves. Soil Sci. Plant Nutrit. 16, 163–166.Google Scholar
  124. Watson, D. J. 1947 Comparative physiological studies on the growth of field crops. II: The effect of varying nutrient supply on net assimilation rate and leaf area. Ann. Bot. 12, 281–310.Google Scholar
  125. Watson, D. J., Thorne, G. N. and French, S. A. W. 1958 Physiological causes of differences in grain yield in varieties of barley. Ann. Bot. 22, 321–352.Google Scholar
  126. Welbank, P. J., Gibb, M. J., Taylor, P. J. and Williams, E. D. 1973 Root growth of cereal crops. Rothamsted Report for 1973. Part 2. p. 26–66.Google Scholar
  127. Yoshida, S. 1972 Physiological aspects of grain yield. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 23, 437–464.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ICARDA and Martinus Nijhoff/Dr. W. Junk Publishers 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Novoa
    • 1
  • R. S. Loomis
  1. 1.INIASantiagoChile

Personalised recommendations