Journal of Applied Phycology

, Volume 8, Issue 4–5, pp 303–311 | Cite as

Spirulina (Arthrospira): potential application as an animal feed supplement

  • Amha Belay
  • Toshimitsu Kato
  • Yoshimichi Ota
Article

Abstract

Spirulina has been used as human food supplement for over 20 years, but its use as an animal feed supplement is relatively recent. This paper reviews earlier studies on its more established effects on growth, survival and tissue quality in a whole range of animals and more recent studies on its immunomodulatory, anti-viral and anti-cancer effects. The basis for potential application as an animal feed supplement is discussed.

Key words

animal feed Arthrospira growth and survival immunomodulation macrophage activation Spirulina 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anderson D, Tang C, Ross E (1991) The xanthophylls ofSpirulina and their effect on egg yolk pigmentation. Poultry Science 70: 115–119.Google Scholar
  2. Ayehunie S, Belay A, Hu Y, Baba TN, Ruprecht R (1996) Inhibition of HIV-1 replication by an aqueous extract ofSpirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis). Abstract. 7th International Conference, International Association of Applied Algology, South Africa, 16–19 April 1996. J. appl. Phycol. 8: 440.Google Scholar
  3. Ayyappan S (1992) Potential ofSpirulina as a feed supplement for carp fry. Seshadri CV, Jeeji Bai N (eds)Spirulina Ecology, Taxonomy, Technology, and Applications. National Symposium, Murugappa Chettiar Research Centre, Madras, 171–172.Google Scholar
  4. Baojiang G. (1994) Study on effect and mechanism of polysaccharides ofSpirulina platensis on body immune functions improvement. Book of Abstracts. Second Asia-Pacific Conference on Algal Biotechnology, p. 24.Google Scholar
  5. Becker EW, Venkataraman LV (1982) Biotechnology and Exploitation of Algae: The Indian Approach. German Agency for Technical Cooperation, Eschborn, West Germany.Google Scholar
  6. Belay A, Ota Y, Miyakawa K, Shimamatsu H (1993) Current knowledge on potential health benefits ofSpirulina. J. appl. Phycol. 5: 235–241.Google Scholar
  7. Besednova NN, Smolins TP, Michciskaya LB, Ovodova PG (1979) Immunostimulating activity of lipopolysaccharides in blue-green algae. Zhurnal Mikrobiologii, Epidemiologii, Immunobiologii 56: 75–79. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  8. Blum JC, Calet C (1976) Valeur alimentaire des algues spirulines pour la croissance du poulet de chair. Ann. Nutr. Aliment. 29: 551–574.Google Scholar
  9. Blum JC, Guillaumin S, Calet C (1976) Valeur alimentaire des algues spirulines pour la poule pondeuse. Ann. Nutr. Aliment. 29: 675–682.Google Scholar
  10. Brune H (1982) Zur Vertraglichkeit der EinzelleralgenSpirulina maxima undScenedesmus acutus als alleinige Eiweibquelle fur Broiler. Z. Tierphysiol. Tieremachr. Futtermittelkd. 48: 143–154.Google Scholar
  11. Chow CY, Woo NYS (1990) Bioenergetic studies on an omnivorous fishOreochromis mossambicus: evaluation of the utilization ofSpirulina algae in feeds. In Hiranu R, Hanyu I (eds), Proc. 2nd Asian Fish. Forum, Tokyo, Japan, 291–294.Google Scholar
  12. Ciferri O, Tiboni O (1985) The biochemistry and industrial potential ofSpirulina. Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 39: 503–526.Google Scholar
  13. Colas B, Sauvageot F, Harscoat JP, Sauveur B (1979) Proteines alimentaires et qualité de l'oeuf. II. Influence de la nature des proteines distribuées aux poules sur les caracteristiques sensorielles de l'oeuf et la teneur en acides amines libres du jaune. Ann. Zootech. (Paris) 28: 297–314.Google Scholar
  14. Daniel T, Kumuthakalavalli R (1991) The use ofSpirulina, a blue-green alga, as a substitute for fish meal in diets forCirrhinus mrigana fingerlings. Indian Zoologist 15: 5–7.Google Scholar
  15. Daniel T, Kumuthakalavalli R. (1992) Evaluation of the suitability ofSpirulina algae in the feed of silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes) fingerlings. Seshadri CV, Jeeji Bai, N (eds)Spirulina Ecology, Taxonomy, Technology, and Applications, National Symposium, Murugappa Chettiar Research Centre Madras, 167–170.Google Scholar
  16. El-Sayed AM (1994) Evaluation of soybean meal,Spirulina meal and chicken offal meal as protein sources for silver seabream (Rhabdosargus sarba) fingerlings. Aquaculture 127: 169–176.Google Scholar
  17. Feinstein GR, Buck EM (1984) Relationship of texture to pH and collagen content of yellowtail flounder cusk. J. Food Sci. 49: 298–299.Google Scholar
  18. Fukino H, Takagi Y, Yamane Y (1990) Effect ofSpirulina (S. platensis) on the renal toxicity induced by inorganic mercury and cisplatin. Eisei Kagaku 36: 5. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  19. Hayashi K, Hayashi T, Morita N (1993) An extract fromSpirulina platensis is a selective inhibitor ofHerpes simplex virus type 1 penetration into Hela cells. Phytotherapy Research 7: 76–80.Google Scholar
  20. Hayashi K, Kato T., Okuwaki Y (1994) Enhancement of antibody production in mice by dietarySpirulina. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. 40: 431–441.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Hayashi T, Hyashi K, Maeda M, Kojima I (1996) Calcium spirulan, an inhibitor of enveloped virus replication, from a blue-green algaSpirulina platensis. J. Nat. Prod. 59: 83–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Kato T, Saiki I, Hayashi T (1995) An agent to restrict tumor metastasis. Japanese Patent, Application # TOKU-GAN-HEI-07-338784.Google Scholar
  23. Kato T, Miyakawa K (1992) Growth promotion agent for fish. Japanese Patent # TOKU-KAI-HEI 5-268884.Google Scholar
  24. Kato T, Takemoto K, Katayama H, Kuwabara Y (1984) Effects ofSpirulina (Spirulina platensis) on dietary hypercholesterolemia in rats. J. Jap. Soc. Nutr. food Sci. 37: 323–332. (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  25. Liao W, Nur-E-Borhan SA, Okada S, Matsui T, Yamaguchi K (1993) Pigmentation of cultured black tiger prawn by feeding withSpirulina-supplemented diet. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 59: 165–169.Google Scholar
  26. Liao W, Takeuchi T, Watanabe T, Yamaguchi K (1990) Effect of dietarySpirulina supplementation on extractive nitrogenous constituents and sensory test of cultured striped jack flesh. Journal of the Tokyo University of Fisheries 77: 241–246. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  27. Mathew B, Sankaranarayanan R, Nair PP, Varghese C, Somanathan T, Amma BP, Amma NS, Nair MK (1995) Evaluation of chemoprevention of oral cancer withSpirulina fusiformis. Nutr. Cancer 24: 197–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Matsuno T, Katsuyama M, Iwahashi M, Koike T, Okada M (1980) Intensification of color of redTilapia with lutein, rhodoxanthin andSpirulina. Bull. Jap. Soc. Sci. Fisheries 46: 479–482. (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  29. Matsuno T, Ngata S, Iwahashi M, Koike T, Okada M (1979) Intensification of color of fancy red carp with zeaxanthin and myxoxanthophyll, major carotenoid constituents ofSpirulina. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries 45: 627–632. (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  30. Mori T, Muranaka T, Miki W, Yamaguchi K, Konosu S, Watanabe T (1987) Pigmentation of cultured sweet smelt fed diets supplemented with a blue-green algaSpirulina maxima. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 53: 433–438.Google Scholar
  31. Mustafa MG, Takeda T, Umino T, Wakamatsu S, Nakagawa H (1994a) Effect ofAscophyllum andSpirulina meal as feed additives on growth and feed utilization of red sea bream, Pagrus major. J. Fac. appl. Sci. Hiroshima Univ. 33: 125–132.Google Scholar
  32. Mustafa MG, Umino T, Miyake H, Nakagawa H (1994b) Effect ofSpirulina sp. meal as feed additive on lipid accumulation in red sea bream. Suisanzoshoku 42: 363–369.Google Scholar
  33. Mustafa MG, Umino T, Nakagawa H (1994c) The effect ofSpirulina feeding on muscle protein deposition in red sea bream,Pagrus major. J. appl. Ichthyol. 10: 141–145.Google Scholar
  34. Nagao K, Takai Y, Ono M (1991) Exercises of growing mice, and the effect of the intake ofSpirulina platensis upon the hapten-specific immune response. Sci. Phys. Power 40: 187–194.Google Scholar
  35. Nakagawa H, Gomez-Diaz G (1995) Usefulness ofSpirulina sp. meal as feed additive for giant freshwater prawn,Mcrobrachium rosenbergii. Suisanzoshoku 43: 521-Naka526.Google Scholar
  36. Nakaya N, Honma Y, Goto Y (1988) Cholesterol lowering effect ofSpirulina. Nutr. Rep. Int. 37: 1329–1337.Google Scholar
  37. Nazarenko R, Kuchkarova M, Lavrov A, Tulaganov A, Zaripov E (1975) Study of the effect of the suspended matter of the algaSpirulina platensis on egg production and live weight of chickens (feed supplement). Uzb. Biol. Zh 19: 21–23.Google Scholar
  38. Okada S, Liao W, Mori T, Yamaguchi T, Watanabe T (1991) Pigmentation of cultured striped jack reared on diets supplemented with the blue-green algaSpirulina maxima. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 57: 1403–1406.Google Scholar
  39. Qishen P, Baojiang G, Jihong R (1988) Enhancement of endonuclease activity and repair DNA synthesis by polysaccharides ofSpirulina platensis. (in Chinese) Acta Genetica Sinica 15: 374–381.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Qishen P, Coleman A, Baojiang G (1989) Radioprotective effect of extract fromSpirulina platensis in mouse bone marrow cells studied by using the micronucleus test. Toxicology Lett. 48: 165–169.Google Scholar
  41. Qureshi MA (1996)Spirulina platensis exposures enhances macrophage phagocytic function in cats. Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology 18: 457–463.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Qureshi MA, Ali RA, Hunter RL (1995a) Immunomodulatory effects ofSpirulina platensis supplementation in chickens. Proc. 44th West. Poultry Dis. Conf. Sacramento, California, 117–121.Google Scholar
  43. Qureshi MA, Garlich D, Kidd MT, Ali RA (1994) Immune enhancement potential ofSpirulina platensis in chickens. Poultry Sci. 73: 46.Google Scholar
  44. Qureshi MA, Kidd MT, Ali RA (1995b)Spirulina platensis extract enhances chicken macrophage functions afterin vitro exposure, J. Nut. Immunol. 4 (in press).Google Scholar
  45. Ross E, Dominy W (1990) The nutritional value of dehydrated, bluegreen algae (Spirulina platensis) for poultry. Poultry Science 69: 794–800.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Sakakibara M, Hamada S (1994) Lowering agent of death rate of young quail. Japanese Patent # 200664.Google Scholar
  47. Santiago CB, Pantastico JB, Baldia SF, Reyes OS (1989) Milkfish (Chanos chanos) fingerling production in freshwater ponds with the use of natural and artificial feeds. Aquaculture 77: 307–318.Google Scholar
  48. Sato K, Yoshinaka R, Sato M, Simizu Y (1986) Collagen content in the muscle of fishes in association with their swimming movement and meat texture. Nippn Suisan Gakkaishi 52: 1595–1600.Google Scholar
  49. Sauveur B, Zybko A, Colas B (1979) Dietary protein and egg quality. I. Effects of some protein source on egg quality and functional properties. Ann. Zootech. (Paris) 28: 271–295.Google Scholar
  50. Schwartz JL, Shklar G (1987) Regression of experimental hamster cancer by beta-carotene and algae extracts. J. oral maxillorfac. Surg. 45: 510–515.Google Scholar
  51. Schwartz JL, Shklar G, Reid S, Trickler D (1988) Prevention of experimental oral cancer by extracts ofSpirulina-Dunaliella algae. Nutr. Cancer 11: 127–134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Stanley JG, Jones JB (1976) Feeding algae to fish. Aquaculture 7: 219–223.Google Scholar
  53. Watanabe T, Liao W, Takeuchi T, Yamamoto H (1990) Effect of dietarySpirulina supplementation on growth performance and flesh lipids of cultured striped jack. J. Tokyo Univ. Fish. 77: 231–239. (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  54. Yap TN, Wu JF, Pond WG, Krook L (1982) Feasibility of feedingSpirulina maxima, Arthrospira platensis orChlorella sp. to pigs weaned to a dry diet at 4 to 8 days of age. Nutritional Reports International 25: 543–552.Google Scholar
  55. Yoshida M, Hoshii H (1980) Nutritive value ofSpirulina, green algae, for poultry feed. Jpn. Poult. Sci. 17: 27–30.Google Scholar
  56. Zhang CW, Tseng CT, Zhang YZ (1994) The effects of polysaccharides and phycocyanin fromSpirulina platensis var. on peripheral blood and hematopoietic system of bone marrow in mice. 2nd Asia-Pacific Conference on Algal Biotechnology. Book of Abstracts, p. 58.Google Scholar
  57. Zhang YZ, Zhang CW, Tseng CT (1995) Using the extract material forSpirulina platensis var.nanjingesis to treat on the anemia disease. 13th International Symposium on Cyanophyte Research. Book of Abstracts, p. 106.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amha Belay
    • 1
  • Toshimitsu Kato
    • 2
  • Yoshimichi Ota
    • 1
  1. 1.Earthrise FarmsCalipatriaUSA
  2. 2.Biochemical DivisionDainippon Ink & Chemicals Inc.Chuo-Ku, TokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations