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Political risk in international technology transfer

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  1. 1.

    S. J. Kobrin, “Political Risk — Review and Reconsideration”,Journal of International of International Business Studies, Vol. 10 (1979), pp. 67–80.

  2. 2.

    R. Goldscheider,1982 Technology Management Handbook (New York: Clark Boardman Co., Ltd., 1982), p. 5.

  3. 3.

    A. Smith.The Wealth of Nations (New York: Modern Library, 1937).

  4. 4.

    Advisory Committee on the Application of Science and Technology,World Plan of Action for the Application of Science and Technology To Development (New York: United Nations, 1971).

  5. 5.

    See J. D. Frame,International Business and Global Technology (Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books Division of D.C. Heath Co., 1983), Chapter 10.

  6. 6.

    This idea has even been promoted by the well-known development economist, Harry Johnson. See F. J. Contractor,International Technology Licensing (Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books Division of D. C. Heath Co., 1981), p. 7.

  7. 7.

    U. N. Conference on Trade and Development,Draft International Code of Conduct on the Transfer of Technologyas of 6 May 1980 (TD/CODE TOT/25).

  8. 8.

    United Nations,Draft Convention on the Law of the Sea (A/Conf.62/L.78), 28 Aug.1981.

  9. 9.

    The proposed revision is being held under the auspices of a Diplomatic Conference for the Revision of the Paris Convention, which held its first session in February and March of 1980.

  10. 10.

    For a full report of the WARC proceedings, see Department of StateReport of the Chairman of the United States Delegation to the World Administrative Radio Conference of the International Telecommunication Union — Geneva Switzerland,Sept. 24–December 6,1979 (Washington, D.C: Department of State, TD Serial No. 116, 1979).

  11. 11.

    U.N. General Assembly,Agreement Covering the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, U.N. Doc. A/Res/34/68, 1979. Annex to G. A. Res. 34/68. Article 11.5.

  12. 12.

    “Talking Technology in Vienna”,The Economist (August 25, 1979), p. 54.

  13. 13.

    U. N. Res. 3201 (S-VI) and Res. 3202 (S-VI), Sixth Special Session of the General Assembly, May 1974.

  14. 14.

    For a good review of the intellectual property environment in Latin America, see C. M. Correa, “Transfer of Technology in Latin America: A Decade of Control”,Journal of World Trade Law,Vol. 15 (Oct. 1981), pp. 388–409.

  15. 15.

    Argentina, Law No. 22,426 of April 1, 1981.Appears in Patent and Trademark Review, Vol. 79 (Dec. 1981), pp. 527–530.

  16. 16.

    Mexico, Lawon the Control and Registration of the Transfer of Technology and the Use and Exploitation of Patents and Trademarks, 1982. Appears inPatent and Trademark Review, Vol. 80 (Sept. 1982), pp. 300–307.

  17. 17.

    Correa, op. cit., p. 396.

  18. 18.

    Mexico,Law on the Control and Registration of the Transfer of Technology, Article 16.III.

  19. 19.

    Correa, op. cit., pp. 398–400.

  20. 20.

    See, for example, Decision No. 24 of the Cartagena Agreement, Article 21. Appears inPatent and Trademark Review, Vol. 79 (Jan. 1981), p. 24.

  21. 21.

    See for example, Article 17 of the Mexican technology transfer law.

  22. 22.

    H. P. Kunz-Hallstein, “The Revision of the International System of Patent Protection in the Interest of Developing Countries”,IIC International Review of Industrial Property and Copyright Law. Vol. 10 (1979), p. 658.

  23. 23.

    Paris Convention, Article 5.A.4.

  24. 24.

    “Patents Under Fire: Eleventh Hour Effort to Protect Licenses”,Business International (March 12, 1982), pp. 81, 84, 85.

  25. 25.

    Paris Convention, Article 5.A.3.

  26. 26.

    India,The Patents Act 1970 (in force April 20, 1972), Article 97. Mexico,Law on Inventions and Marks, (December 30, 1975), Article 56.

  27. 27.

    T. Agres, “Concerted Soviet Efforts Siphon Western Technology”,Industrial Research and Development, (June 1982), pp. 95–102.

  28. 28.

    M. Potts and M. Thornton, “Plot to Steal IBM Data is Charged to Japanese”,Washington Post, (June 23, 1982), p. A1.

  29. 29.

    The problem of pirating in Asia is so pronounced thatBusiness Asia devoted a number of articles to it in 1982. See, for example, the first of these, entitled “Chemical Firms Seek Technology Protection for Licensing in Asia”Business Asia, Vol. 13 (April 16, 1982), pp. 121–122.

  30. 30.

    R. A. Baskerville, “Trademark Litigation Involving Foreign Business in the Republic of Korea”,The International Lawyer, pp. 521–528.

  31. 31.

    U.N. Industrial Development Organization statistics reported in F. Contractor,International Technology Licensing (Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books Division of D.C. Heath, 1981), p. 147.

  32. 32.

    H. A. Janiszewski, “Nigeria Regulates Technology”, in R. Goldscheider and T. Arnold (eds.)The Law and Business of Licensing: Licensing in the 1980s (New York: Clark Boardman Co. Ltd., 1981), pp. 2E179–2E183.

  33. 33.

    S. Auerbach, “Pirates Take Big Bite of Apple Computers”Washington Post, October 12, 1982), p. D1.

  34. 34.

    “Corporate Strategies for Protecting Patents in Indonesia”,Business Asia, Vol. 14 (June 4, 1982), p. 177.

  35. 35.

    S. Auerbach, op. cit., p. D1.

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Frame, J.D. Political risk in international technology transfer. J Technol Transfer 10, 1–14 (1986).

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  • Economic Growth
  • Technology Transfer
  • Industrial Organization
  • Technology Management
  • Political Risk