Journal of Nonverbal Behavior

, Volume 18, Issue 4, pp 263–280

Angle of regard: The effect of vertical viewing angle on the perception of facial expressions

  • Arvid Kappas
  • Ursula Hess
  • Carol L. Barr
  • Robert E. Kleck
Article

Abstract

Two studies were conducted using video records of real faces and three-dimensional schematic faces to investigate the perceptual distortions introduced by viewing faces at a vertical angle and their influence on the attribution of emotional expressions and attitudes. The results indicate that faces seen from below were perceived as morepositive and lessnegative, while faces seen from above appeared morenegative and lesspositive. This effect seems to be moderated by interindividual differences in facial morphology, and perhaps by differences in dynamic aspects of expressions. The second study investigated the respective contribution of the upper half and the lower half of the face to the perceptual distortion found. In general, judges based their attributions of emotional state more on cues from the upper half of the face.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Baddeley, A. D. (1994).Your memory: A user's guide. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  2. Baddeley, A. D., & Woodhead, M. M. (1983). Improving face recognition ability. In S. M. A. Lloyd-Bostock & B. R. Clifford (Eds.),Evaluating witness evidence (pp. 125–136). Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  3. Bassili, J. N. (1979). Emotion recognition: The role of facial movement and the relative importance of upper and lower areas of the face.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 2049–2058.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Boucher, J. D., & Ekman, P. (1975). Facial areas and emotional information.Journal of Communication, 25, 21–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1978).The Facial Action Coding System: A technique for the measurement of facial movement. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  6. Ellyson, S. L., & Dovidio, J. F. (Eds.). (1985).Power, dominance and nonverbal behavior. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  7. Hess, U., Kappas, A., McHugo, G. J., Kleck, R. E., & Lanzetta, J. T. (1989). An analysis of the encoding and decoding of spontaneous and posed smiles: The use of facial electromyography.Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 13, 121–137.Google Scholar
  8. Hess, U., Kappas, A., & Scherer, K. R. (1988). Multichannel communication of emotion: Synthetic signal production. In K. R. Scherer (Ed.),Facets of emotion: Recent research (pp. 161–182). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  9. Hess, U., & Kleck, R. E. (1994). The cues decoders use in attempting to differentiate emotionelicited and posed facial expressions.European Journal of Social Psychology, 24, 367–381.Google Scholar
  10. Hojo, H. (1987). Psychophysical scaling of smiling faces.Japanese Psychological Research, 29, 37–41.Google Scholar
  11. Hojo, H. (1989). Analysis of saliency of facial features through psychophysical scaling.Japanese Psychological Research, 30, 42–46.Google Scholar
  12. Lanzetta, J. T., & Orr, S. (1981). Stimulus properties of facial expressions and their influence on the classical conditioning of fear.Motivation and Emotion, 5, 225–234.Google Scholar
  13. Mandell, L. M., & Shaw, D. L. (1973). Judging people in the news unconsciously: Effect of camera angle and bodily activity.Journal of Broadcasting, 17, 353–362.Google Scholar
  14. Matsumoto, D., & Ekman, P. (1989). American-Japanese cultural differences in intensity ratings of facial expressions of emotion.Motivation and Emotion, 13, 143–157.Google Scholar
  15. Mendolia, M., & Kleck, R. E. (1991). Watching people talk about their emotions: Inferences in response to full-face vs. profile expressions.Motivation and Emotion, 15, 229–242.Google Scholar
  16. Oster, H., Daily, L., & Goldenthal, P. (1989). Processing facial affect. In A. W. Young & H. D. Ellis (Eds.),Handbook of research on face processing (pp. 107–161). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  17. Sergent, J. (1989). Structural processing of faces. In A. W. Young & H. D. Ellis (Eds.),Handbook of research on face processing (pp. 57–91). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  18. Wiggers, M. (1982). Judgements of facial expressions of emotions predicted from facial behavior.Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 7, 101–116.Google Scholar
  19. Yamada, H., Chiba, H., Tsuda, K., Maiya, K., & Harashima, H. (1992). A facial image processing system for psychological studies. InIEEE International Workshop on Robot and Human Communication (pp. 358–362). Tokyo, September 1992.Google Scholar
  20. Young, A. W., & Ellis, H. D. (Eds.). (1989).Handbook of research on face processing. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press, Inc. 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arvid Kappas
    • 1
  • Ursula Hess
  • Carol L. Barr
  • Robert E. Kleck
  1. 1.École de psychologieUniversité LavalQuébecCanada

Personalised recommendations