Advertisement

Experientia

, Volume 4, Issue 6, pp 205–213 | Cite as

Die Reizschwelle der Sinnesorgane als physikalisches Problem

  • Hl. de Vries
Article

Summary

A survey is given of recent work on physical aspects of sensory processes. The reasoning which leads to the generally recognized view that one rod of the retina is excited by only one quantum of light is given in par. II. In par. IIIa summary is given of the papers byHecht andVan der Velden on the number of rods which must be struck in order to obtaina sensation of light. Par. III describes the role of the quantum character of light at higher intensities (de Vries), where it sets a limit to intensity discrimination and visual acuity. The influence of Brownian movement on the process of hearing is discussed in par. VI. It is found that the Brownian movement of the inner ear is close to the threshold actually observed (de Vries), whereas the Brownian motion of the air at the eardrum (seeSivian andWhite) is below the audible threshold. The role of the Brownian movementin the sense cells is described in par. VII; the results are used for an analysis of the mechanism of hearing (see alsode Vries); evidence is obtained that electric voltages are generated in the tectorial membrane (the well-known cochlear microphonics) and that they play an important part in the mechanism of energy transfer to the sense cells (similar voltages were also derived from the cupolæ in the lateral lines of fishes by the present author). Finally some physical arguments are sumarized againstYeagley's theory of bird navigation.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    N. Raskevsky, Mathematical Biophysics (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill., 1938) und Arbeiten verschiedener Autoren in: Bull. Mathematical Biophysics.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    H.A. Van der Velden, Physica11, 179 (1944); Ophthalmologica111, 21 (1946) (englische Übersetzung der vorigen Arbeit); J. Opt. Soc. Am.37, 908 (1947).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    E. Ludvigh undE. F. McCarthy, Arch. Ophthalm. (Chicago)20, 36 (1938).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hl. de Vries, Nature158, 303 (1946).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    S. Hecht, J. Gen. Physiol.25, 819 (1942).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    H. A. Van der Velden, l. c..Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hl. de Vries, Physica10, 553 (1943). Siehe auchA. Rose, J. Opt. Soc. Am.35, 196 (1948).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hl. de Vries, Physica10, 553 (1943).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    S. S. Stevens undH. Davis, Hearing (John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1938).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    G. von Békésy, Akust.8, 67 (1943);6, 1 (1941).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    G. W. Steward, J. acoust. Soc. Am.2, 325 (1931).Google Scholar
  12. 11a.
    W. E. Kock, ebenda7, 56 (1935);8, 23 (1936);9, 129 (1937).Google Scholar
  13. 11b.
    D. Gabor, Nature159, 591 (1947).Google Scholar
  14. 12.
    L. J. Sivian andS. D. White, J. Acoust Soc. Am.4, 288 (1933).Google Scholar
  15. 13.
    Hl. de Vries, Physica14, 48 (1948).Google Scholar
  16. 14.
    Hl. de Vries, Nature161, 63 (1948).Google Scholar
  17. 15.
    R. H. Fowler undS. A. Guggenheim, Statistical Thermodynamics (Cambridge University Press, 1939), p. 529.Google Scholar
  18. 16.
    H. Broda, C. F. Goodeve undR. J. Lythgoe, J. Physiol.98, 397 (1940).Google Scholar
  19. 17.
    Donald R. Griffin, Ruth Hubbard undG. Wald, J. Opt. Soc. Am.37, 546 (1947).Google Scholar
  20. 18.
    Hl. de Vries, Physica erscheint demnächst.Google Scholar
  21. 19.
    E. J. Bowen, Chemical Aspects of Light (Clarendon Press, 1946).Google Scholar
  22. 20.
    Hl. de Vries, Nature161, 63 (1948).Google Scholar
  23. 21.
    Hl. de Vries, erscheint demnächst in Acta oto-laryngologica.Google Scholar
  24. 22.
    Hl. de Vries, Physica14, 48 (1948).Google Scholar
  25. 23.
    Inzwischen hat HerrJ. Bleeker sie auch von den Bogengangsampullen von Tauben abgeleitet (Klinik für Ohrenheilk., Groningen [Direktor Prof. Dr.E. Huizinga]).Google Scholar
  26. 24.
    Ich verdanke Herrn Prof. Dr.S. Dijkgraaf den Hinweis auf die für diese Versuche besonders geeigneten Tiere.Google Scholar
  27. 25.
    Y. Zotterman, J. Physiol.102, 313 (1943).Google Scholar
  28. 26.
    K. S. Cole undH. J. Curtis, J. Gen. Physiol.22, 649 (1937)Google Scholar
  29. 27.
    H. L. Yeagley, J. Applied Physics18, 1035 (1947).Google Scholar
  30. 28.
    G. Ising, Ark. Math. Astrophys.32 A, no. 4 (1946).Google Scholar
  31. 29.
    W. H. Thorpe undD. H. Wilkinson, Nature158, 903 (1946).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag 1948

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hl. de Vries
    • 1
  1. 1.Physikalisches Institut der Universität GroningenNiederlande

Personalised recommendations