Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology

, Volume 16, Issue 6, pp 661–676 | Cite as

Transient and sustained expression of FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in the developing nervous system ofLymnaea stagnalis (mollusca, pulmonata)

  • Elena E. Voronezhskaya
  • K. Elekes


  1. 1.

    In the present study we have investigated the ontogeny of FMRFamide expression in the snail,Lymnaea stagnalis, from its first appearance to its distribution in young adults.

  2. 2.

    The first FMRFamide-like immunoreactive (FaLI) cells within CNS appear by E45 embryonic stage (premetamorphic veliger). The number of FaLI neurons increases throughout both pre- and post-hatching development.

  3. 3.

    Both transient and sustained expression of FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity by specific sets of neurons occurs. Two cells which transiently express immunoreactivity appear outside the future CNS by the stage E45. Other population of transient FaLI neurons includes bilaterally symmetric groups of cells in the cerebral and pedal ganglia during posthatching stages P1 (hatchlings) to P5 (juveniles). All other immunostained cells which appear during development maintain their transmitter phenotype into adulthood.

  4. 4.

    The possible role of FMRFamide-related peptides in the processes of morpho- and neurogenesis is discussed.


Key Words

gastropod mollusc development neuropeptides FMRFamide immunoreactivity Lymnaea 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elena E. Voronezhskaya
    • 1
    • 2
  • K. Elekes
    • 1
  1. 1.Balaton Limnological Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of SciencesTihanyHungary
  2. 2.Institute of Developmental BiologyRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

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