Blinded spinal minnows (Phoxinus laevis), fixed free from contact, show without any stimulation “spontaneous” body and fin movements. The first slight movements begin 8–10 days after transection of the spinal cord, when the cut is made at the level of the 6th or 7th vertebra or posterior to that region. When it is made near the first vertebra the movements begin within 2–3 days. In the following days or weeks their intensity grows, in most cases until the fishes exhibit quick swimming movements. Periods of swimming (up to 1 minute) alternate irregularly with periods of absolute rest. The origin of the movements is discussed. When the spinal cord is transected at the level of the dorsal fin in a (spinal) minnow that has been operated previously in the anterior region and already shows “spontaneous” swimming, tail movements reappear after 1–2 days. The changes taking place in the spinal cord after transection seem to affect all its parts equally.
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Dijkgraaf, S. «Spontane» Aktivität des Rückenmarks bei der Elritze. Experientia 5, 291–292 (1949). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02149950