The abundance rules would probably allow the lower limit of the age of the elements to be more clearly defined if the half lives of long-lifed artificial isotopes, such as X129 Pd107 or Se79, were known with better accuracy. They would permit the upper limit for the age of the elements to be improved, if the abundance of bismuth were known with better accuracy. From the values of these quantities at present available not much can be said, except that it seems more probable than hitherto assumed, that the age of the elements lies between 4 and 5·109 years.
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