Journal of Youth and Adolescence

, Volume 18, Issue 6, pp 531–548 | Cite as

Classwork and homework in early adolescence: The ecology of achievement

  • Carla M. Leone
  • H. Richards


Recent studies have questioned whether the nation's educational system is adequately preparing children to function productively in today's society. To examine this issue, the present study utilized the Experience Sampling Method to investigate the amount of time young adolescents spent doing classwork and homework, their inner subjective experience while doing so, and their companions while doing homework. The relationship between these variables and students' academic performance was also examined. Results revealed that students spent only 15.5 hours per week engaged in school work and only 6 hours per week doing homework, with increased homework time associated with better academic achievement. In addition, students were found to complete homework primarily alone or in classes, although doing homework with their parents was associated with better academic performance. Lastly, students' affect was found to be relatively neutral when doing classwork, but comparatively more negative while doing homework, particularly when doing homework alone. The implications of these findings for understanding the socializing influence of school are discussed.


Health Psychology Academic Achievement Academic Performance School Psychology Experience Sampling 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carla M. Leone
    • 1
  • H. Richards
    • 2
  1. 1.DuPage County Health DepartmentEash Public Health CenterLombard
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyLoyola University of ChicagoChicago

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