, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 27–34 | Cite as

Indoor air quality in schools: exposure to fungal allergens

  • Estelle Levetin
  • Richard Shaughnessy
  • Eugene Fisher
  • Bryan Ligman
  • Jed Harrison
  • Terry Brennan


This study examined indoor air quality within schools in Kansas City, Spokane, Santa Fe, and Orlando. Air sampling was undertaken with both Andersen Single Stage Samplers and Burkard Personal Air Samplers. The data show a wide range of indoor exposures ranging from less than 100 colony forming units (CFU/m3) for viable fungi and 100 spores/m3 for total spores in Spokane and Santa Fe to concentrations over 6000 CFU/m3 for viable fungi and 15 000 spores/m3 for total fungi in Orlando and Kansas City, respectively. In the majority of sites the indoor airspora reflected the outdoor taxa withCladosporium the most abundant genus identified; however, several indoor locations had elevated levels ofPenicillium andAspergillus indicating possible sources of indoor contamination. Airborne basidiospores and smut spores were also fairly abundant in the schools and were among the top five taxa identified. The data also indicated that the airborne concentrations vary significantly during the day and between classrooms within each school. Continued studies in schools are needed to fully assess both the exposure levels and the clinical significance to atopic children allergic to these spores.


Aeroallergens Fungal allergens Bioaerosols Indoor aerobiology Schools Basidiospores Smut spores 


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Copyright information

© Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Estelle Levetin
    • 1
  • Richard Shaughnessy
    • 2
  • Eugene Fisher
    • 3
  • Bryan Ligman
    • 3
  • Jed Harrison
    • 4
  • Terry Brennan
    • 5
  1. 1.Faculty of Biological ScienceUniversity of TulsaTulsaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Chemical EngineeringUniversity of TulsaTulsaUSA
  3. 3.U.S. Environmental Protection AgencyOffice of Radiation and Indoor Air ProgramsWashington, DCUSA
  4. 4.U.S. Environmental Protection AgencyOffice of Radiation and Indoor Air ProgramsLas VegasUSA
  5. 5.Camroden AssociatesOriskanyUSA

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