Annals of Operations Research

, Volume 63, Issue 5, pp 511–623

Metaheuristics: A bibliography

  • Ibrahim H. Osman
  • Gilbert Laporte

DOI: 10.1007/BF02125421

Cite this article as:
Osman, I.H. & Laporte, G. Ann Oper Res (1996) 63: 511. doi:10.1007/BF02125421


Metaheuristics are the most exciting development in approximate optimization techniques of the last two decades. They have had widespread successes in attacking a variety of difficult combinatorial optimization problems that arise in many practical areas. This bibliography provides a classification of a comprehensive list of 1380 references on the theory and application of metaheuristics. Metaheuristics include but are not limited to constraint logic programming; greedy random adaptive search procedures; natural evolutionary computation; neural networks; non-monotonic search strategies; space-search methods; simulated annealing; tabu search; threshold algorithms and their hybrids. References are presented in alphabetical order under a number of subheadings.


Artificial intelligence bibliography combinatorial optimization constraint logic programming evolutionary computation genetic algorithms greedy random adaptive search procedure heuristics hybrids local search metaheuristics neural networks non-monotonic search strategies problem-space method simulated annealing tabu search threshold algorithms