Medical Microbiology and Immunology

, Volume 165, Issue 2, pp 111–117 | Cite as

Protection induced by inactivated influenza virus vaccines with polymethylmethacrylate adjuvants

  • Jörg Kreuter
  • Ekke Liehl


Nanocapsules from a copolymer of polymethylmethacrylate and polyacrylamide were tested for adjuvant activity in mouse protection experiments with inactivated influenza virus as antigen. Viruses were either adsorbed on the capsules after polymerization or added to the monomers and incorporated by copolymerization after X-ray initiation. Both preparations showed enhanced immunity as compared to fluid vaccine, if the adjuvant content was 1%. The adjuvant effect was comparable to that caused by the mineral adjuvant Al(OH)3. After dilution of the polymer the adjuvant effect was lost. Such synthetic polymers at suitable concentrations could serve as alternatives to mineral adjuvants.


Polymer Influenza Polyacrylamide Polymethylmethacrylate Influenza Virus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allison, A.C., Davies, A.J.S.: Requirement of thymus dependent lymphocytes for potentiations of adjuvants of antibody formation. Nature233, 330 (1971)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Allison, A.C., Gregoriadis, G.: Liposomes as immunological adjuvants. Nature252, 252 (1974)Google Scholar
  3. Davenport, F.M.: Seventeen years' experience with mineral oil adjuvant influenza virus vaccines. Ann. Allergy26, 288 (1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Dresser, D.W.: The effectiveness of lipid and lipidophilic substances as adjuvants. Nature191, 1139 (1961)Google Scholar
  5. Freeman, M.J.: Heterogeneity at the antibody response of rabbits immunized with acrylic particle bovine serum albumin complexes. Immunology15, 481 (1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Hilleman, M.R.: Critical appraisal of emulsified oil adjuvants applied to viral vaccines. Prog. Med. Viral.8, 131 (1966)Google Scholar
  7. Hilleman, M.R., Woodhour, A.F., Friedman, I., Weibel, R.E.: The safety and efficiency of emulsified Peanut Oil Adjuvant 65 when applied to influenza vaccine. Symp. Series Immunobiol. Standard22, 107 (1973)Google Scholar
  8. Job, I.: Mineral carriers as adjuvants. Symp. Series Immunobiol. Standard22, 133 (1973)Google Scholar
  9. Krag, P., Bentzon, M.W.: The international reference preparation of influenza virus haemagglutinin (Type A). Bull. WHO45, 473 (1971)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Kreuter, J., Speiser, P.: New adjuvants on a Polymethylmethacrylate Base. Inf. Immunity13, 204 (1976a)Google Scholar
  11. Kreuter, J., Mauler, R., Gruschkau, H., Speiser, P.P.: The use of new polymethylmethycrylate adjuvants for split influenza vaccines. Exp. Cell Biol.44, 12 (1976b)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Maillard, J., Bloom, B.R.: Immunological adjuvants and the mechanism on cell cooperation. J. exp. Med.136, 185 (1972)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Munoz, J.: Effect of bacteria and bacterial products on antibody response. Adv. Immunol.4, 397 (1964)Google Scholar
  14. Nothdurft, H.: Über die Sarkomauslösung durch Fremdkörperimplantationen bei Ratten in Abhängigkeit von der Form der Implantate. Naturwissenschaften42, 106 (1955)Google Scholar
  15. Rasková, H., Masek, K.: Old and new possibilities for adjuvants from a pharmacologist's point of view. In R.E. Regamey, W. Hennessen, D. Ikic and J. Ungar (eds.), International symposium on adjuvants on immunity, Utrecht 1966. Symposia Series Immunobiological Standardization,6. Basel: Karger 1967Google Scholar
  16. Schulman, J.L., Kilbourne, E.D.: Experimental Transmission of Influenza Virus Infection in Mice. J. exp. Med.118, 257 (1963)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Snedecor, G.W., Cochran, W.G. (eds.): Statistical Methods. Iowa State University Press 1971Google Scholar
  18. Steele, A.S.O.: The immunizing effects of polystyrene protein conjugates. J. Pathol. bacterial.89, 691 (1962)Google Scholar
  19. Stinson, N.E.: The tissue reaction induced in rats and guinea-pigs by polymethymethacrylate (acrylic) and stainless steel (18/8/Mo). Br. J. Exp. Pathol.45, 21 (1964)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Stinson, N.E.: Tissue reaction induced in guinea-pigs by particulate polymethylmethacrylate, polythene and nylon of the same size range. Br. J. Exp. Pathol.46, 135 (1965)PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jörg Kreuter
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ekke Liehl
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutical TechnologySwiss Federal Institute of TechnologyZürichSwitzerland
  2. 2.Sandoz Forschungsinstitut Gesellschaft M.B.H.ViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations