Energetics of early development for the sea urchinsStrongylocentrotus purpuratus andLytechinus pictus and the crustaceanArtemia sp.
Embryos and larvae of two species of sea urchin,Strongylocentrotus purpuratus andLytechinus pictus, and larvae of the brine shrimpArtemia sp. (San Francisco brand) were cultured to investigate the contribution of dissolved organic material in seawater to the energetics of early development. When embroys ofS. purpuratus were reared in artificial seawater, a net loss in dry organic mass was observed. In contrast, when sibling embryos were reared to Day 2 under identical conditions in natural seawater, there was either a net increase in dry organic mass or no change. A net decrease in mass was observed in only one of five cultures reared in filtered natural seawater. Energy budgets for each species were determined by giving energy equivalents to the changes in carbohydrate, lipid and protein, and to the rate of oxygen consumption for each day of development. In the case ofS. purpuratus, the use of endogenous reserves accounted for either 0 or 38% of the metabolic demand for two independent cultures reared from Days 0 to 2. For larvae ofL. pictus, reared to 8 d, only 66% of the metabolic demand could be accounted for by the use of endogenous reserves. Sea urchins are capable of transporting dissolved organic material from seawater. Calculations revealed that the energy deficit during the early development of sea urchins (S. purpuratus) could be accounted for by the uptake of dissolved organic matter from seawater. However, for a species that cannot use this resource (Artemia sp.), the metabolic needs during development are supplied through the use of endogenous reserves.
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