Advertisement

Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes

, Volume 28, Issue 4, pp 351–358 | Cite as

Gap junctions in excitable cells

  • Peter R. Brink
  • Kerry Cronin
  • S. V. Ramanan
Article

Abstract

Gap junction channels are an integral part of the conduction or propagation of an action potential from cell to cell. Gap junctions have rather unique gating and permeability properties which permit the movement of molecules from cell to cell. These molecules may not be directly linked to action potentials but can alter nonjunctional processes within cells, which in turn can affect conduction velocity. The data described in this review reveal that, for the majority of excitable cells, there are two limiting factors, with respect to gap junctions, that affect the conduction/propagation of action potentials. These are (1) the total number of channels and (2) the selective permeability of the channels. Interestingly, voltage dependence and the time course of voltage inactivation (kinetics) are not rate limiting steps under normal physiological conditions for any of the connexins studied so far. Only specialized rectifying electrical synapses utilize strong voltage dependence and rapid kinetics to permit or deny the continued propagation of an action potential.

Key words

Gap junctions action potentials propagation conduction excitable cells 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Barr, L., Dewey, M. M., and Berger, W. (1965).J. Gen. Physiol. 48, 797–823.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Barr, L., Berger, W., and Dewey, M. M. (1968).J. Gen. Physiol. 51, 346–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beeler, G. W., and Reuter, H. (1977).J. Physiol. 268, 177–210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Benz, R. (1986). InIon Channel Reconstitution (Miller, C., ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 553–573.Google Scholar
  5. Bennett, M. V. L., and Verselis, V. K. (1992).Sem. Cell Biol. 3, 29–47.Google Scholar
  6. Bennett, M. V. L., Zheng, X., and Sogin, M. L. (1995).Prog. Cell Res. 4, 3–8.Google Scholar
  7. Berger, W., and Barr, L. (1969).J Appl. Physiol. 26, 378–382.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Beyer, E. C. (1993).Int. Rev. Cytol. 137, 1–37.Google Scholar
  9. Blatz, A. L., and Magleby, K. L. (1984).J Gen. Physiol. 84, 1–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Brink, P. R., (1991).J. Cardiovas. Electrophysiol. 2, 360–366.Google Scholar
  11. Brink, P. R., and Dewey, M. M. (1978).J. Gen. Physiol. 72, 67–86.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Brink, P. R., and Dewey, M. M. (1980).Nature 285, 101–102.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Brink, P. R., and Fan, S. F. (1989).Biophys. J. 56, 579–593.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Brink, P. R., and Ramanan, S. V. (1985).Biophys. J. 48, 299–309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Brink, P. R., Ramanan, S. V., and Christ, G. (1996).Am. J. Physiol. Cell, in press.Google Scholar
  16. Bukauskas, F., Elfgand, C., Willecke, K., and Weingart, R. (1995).Pflugers Arch. 429, 870–872.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bullock, T. H. (1945).J. Neurophysiol. 8, 55–71.Google Scholar
  18. Burt, J. M. (1991). InBiophysics of Gap Junction Channels (Perrachia, C., ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 75–96.Google Scholar
  19. Cole, W. C., Picone, J. B., and Sperelakis, N. (1988).Biophys. J. 53, 809–818.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Dermietzel, R., and Spray, D. C. (1993).Trends Neurosci. 16, 186–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Eccles, J.,et al. (1933).J. Physiol. 77, 23–25.Google Scholar
  22. Fursphan, E. J., and Potter, D. D. (1957).Nature 180, 342–343.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Fursphan, E. J., and Potter, D. D. (1959).J. Physiol. 145, 289–325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Fushiki, S., and Kinoshita, C. (1995).Progr. Cell Res. 4, 239–244.Google Scholar
  25. Goodenough, D. A. (1975).Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 40, 37–48.Google Scholar
  26. Jaslove, S. W., and Brink, P. R. (1986).Nature 323, 63–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Jaslove, S. W., and Brink, P. R. (1987). InCell-to-Cell Communication (DeMello, C., ed.), Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  28. Little, T. L., Xia, J., and Duling, B. R. (1995).Circ. Res. 76, 498–504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Lowenstein, W. R. (1981).Physiol. Rev. 61, 829–913.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Makowski, L., Casper, D., Philips, W., Baker, T.,et al. (1984).Biophys. J. 45, 208–218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Margiotta, J. F., and Walcott, B. (1983).Nature 305, 52–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Mirro, J., Bailey, J. D., and Watnabe, A. M. (1980). InThe Slow Inward Current and Cardiac Arrythmias (Zipes, D. P., Bailey, J. C., and Eiharrar, V., eds.), Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, pp. 111–127.Google Scholar
  33. Moreno, A. P., Fishman, G. I., Beyer, E. C., and Spray, D. C. (1995).Prog. Cell Res. 4, 405–408.Google Scholar
  34. Neyton, J., and Trautmann, A. (1985).Nature 317, 331–335.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Robinson, S. R., Hampson, E. C. G. M., Munro, M. N., and Vaney, D. I. (1993).Science 262, 1072–1074.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Rudiusli, A., and Weingart, R. (1991). InBiophysics of Gap Junction Channels (Perrachia, C., ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 43–56.Google Scholar
  37. Spray, D. C., and Bennett, M. V. L. (1985).Ann. Rev. Physiol. 47, 281–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Tsien, R., and Weingart, R. (1976).J. Physiol. 260, 117–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Veenstra, R. D., Wang, Z., Beyer, E. C., Ramanan, S. V., and Brink, P. R. (1994a).Biophys. J. 66, 1915–1928.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Veenstra, R. D., Wang, Z., Beyer, E. C., and Brink, P. R. (1994b).Circ. Res. 268, 706–712.Google Scholar
  41. Veenstra, R. D., Wang, H. Z., Beblo, D. A., Cliton, M. G., Harris, A. L., Beyer, E. C., and Brink, P. R. (1995).Cir. Res. 77, 1156–1165.Google Scholar
  42. Verselis, V. K., Bargiello, T. A., Rubin, J. B., and Bennett, M. V. L. (1994).Nature 368, 348–351.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Wang, H.-Z., Li, J., Lemanski, L. F., and Veenstra, R. D. (1992).Biophys. J. 63, 139–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Weidmann, S. (1966).J. Physiol. 187, 322–342.Google Scholar
  45. Weingart, R. (1986).J. Physiol. 370, 267–284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. White, T. W., Paul, D., Goodenough, D. A., and Bruzzone, R. (1995).Mol. Biol. Cell 6, 459–470.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter R. Brink
    • 1
  • Kerry Cronin
    • 1
  • S. V. Ramanan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physiology and BiophysicsState University of New York at Stony BrookStony Brook

Personalised recommendations