Evolution of the master Alu gene(s)
A comparison of Alu sequences that comprise more recently amplified Alu subfamilies was made. There are 18 individual diagnostic mutations associated with the different subfamilies. This analysis confirmed that the formation of each subfamily can be explained by the sequential accumulation of mutations relative to the previous subfamily. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of orthologous loci in several primate species allowed us to determine the time of insertion of Alu sequences in individual loci. These data suggest that the vast majority of Alu elements amplified at any given time comprised a single Alu subfamily. We find that, although the individual divergence relative to a consensus sequence correlate reasonably well with sequence age, the diagnostic mutations are a more accurate measure of the age of any individual Alu family member. Our data are consistent with a model in which all Alu family members have been made from a single master gene or from a series of sequential master genes. This master gene(s) accumulated diagnostic base changes, resulting in the amplification of different subfamilies from the master gene at different times in primate evolution. The changes in the master gene(s) probably occurred individually, but their appearance is clearly punctuated. Ten of them have occurred within an ∼15-million-year time span, 40–25 million years ago, and 8 changes have occurred within the last 5 million years. Surprisingly, no changes appeared in the 20 milion years separating these periods.
Key wordsAlu subfamilies Polymerase chain reaction diagnostic mutations Orthologous loci Master Alu sequence
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