Optical and Quantum Electronics

, Volume 22, Supplement 1, pp S283–S313 | Cite as

Non-linear crystals for tunable coherent sources

  • J. T. Lin


High-efficiency non-linear crystals suitable for the generation of coherent sources ranging from the deep ultraviolet to mid-infrared (0.16 to 5 µm) are explored. The key parameters for frequency conversion techniques (second-harmonic-generation, sumfrequency mixing, difference-frequency mixing, optical parametric oscillation (OPO) and stimulated Raman scattering) including tunability, beam quality, beam walk-off and the effective figure-of-merit are analysed. Materials selection rules for non-linear crystals (for wide transparency, high damage threshold, stability, low absorption and large figure-of-merit) are presented. Techniques using non-critical phase-matching, quasi-phase-matching, waveguided doubling and self-frequency doubling are explored. Features and applications of the new non-linear crystals ofβ-barium borate, lithium triborate (LBO), potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP), KNbO3 and MgO:LiNbO3 are presented and compared with other crystals. In addition to a critical review, this paper also presents some new results for the analysis of frequency-conversion efficiency, experimental data of OPO in KTP, LBO for frequency conversion using temperature-tuned non-critical phase-matching and green lasers from the diode-pumped self-frequency-doubling crystal of neodymium yttrium aluminium borate.


  1. 1.
    J. T. LIN and C. CHEN,Lasers and Optronics (November 1987) 59.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. T. LIN,ibid. (July 1989) 61.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Idem, in ‘Proceedings of Laser '87’ (STS Press, Virginia, 1977) p. 404.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Idem, SPIE Proc. 895 (1987) p. 162.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    J. T. LIN and J. L. MONTGOMERY,Opt. Commun. 75 (1990) 351.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Idem, in Proceedings of the Topical Meeting on Tunable Solid-state Lasers, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 1–3 May, 1988 (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    R. C. ECKARDT, Y. X. FAN, R. L. BYER, C. L. MARGUARDT, M. E. STORM and L. ESTEROWITZ,Appl. Phys. Lett. 49 (1986) 608.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    J. D. FEICHTNER and G. W. ROLAND,Appl. Opt. 11 (1972) 993.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    R. AUYEUNG, D. ZIELKE and B. FELDMAN, Presented at CLEO '87 (1987) Paper TUH3 (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    D. S. BETHUNE and A. C. LUNTZ,Appl. Phys. B40 (1986) 107.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    S. BENSON, J. MADEY, R. STRAIGHT and B. HOOPER,J. Laser Applic. 1 (1989) 49.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    C. CHEN, B. WU, A. JIANG and G. YOU,Sci. Sinice B28 (1985) 235.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    C. CHEN, B. WU, A. JIANG, G. YOU, R. LI and S. LIN,J. Opt. Soc. Am. B6 (1989) 616.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    D. EIMERL, L. DAVIS, S. VELSKO, E. K. GRAHAM and A. ZALKIN,J. Appl. Phys. 62 (1987) 1968.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    K. KATO,IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22 (1986) 103.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Idem, ibid.QE-24 (1988) 3.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    K. MIYAZAKI, H. SAKAI and T. SATO,Opt. Lett. 11 (1986) 797.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    C. CHEN, Y. X. FAN, R. C. ECKARDT and R. L. BYER,SPIE Proc. 681 (1986) 12.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Idem, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25 (1989) 1196.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    W. L. GLAB and J. P. MESSLER,Appl. Opt. 26 (1987) 3181.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    P. LOKAI, B. BURGHARDT and W. MUCKENHEIM,Appl. Phys. B45 (1988) 245.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Idem, ibid.B45 (1988) 256.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    A. LAGO, R. WALLENSTEIN, C. CHEN, Y. X. FAN and R. L. BYER,Opt. Lett. 13 (1988) 221.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    L. K. CHENG, W. R. BOSENBERG and C. L. TANG,Appl. Phys. Lett. 53 (1988) 175.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    D. W. CHEN and J. J. YEH,Opt. Lett. 13 (1988) 808.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    M. EBRAHUNZADCH and M. H. DUNN,Tech. Dig. CLEO '88, Postdeadline Paper PD30,Opt. Commun. 69 (1988) 161.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Y. X. FAN, R. C. ECKARDT, R. L. BYER, J. NOTTING and R. WALLENSTEIN,ibid. Postdeadline paper PD31.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    H. KOMINE,ibid. Postdeadline Paper PD32.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    L. K. CHENG, W. R. ROSENBERG, D. C. EDELSTEIN and C. L. TANG,ibid. Postdeadline Paper PD33.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    P. OIU and A. PENZKOFER,Appl. Phys. B45 (1988) 225.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    T. F. JOHNSTON and T. J. JOHNSTON, Presented at CLEO '89 (1989) Paper FE5 (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    C. T. MUELLER and N. D. DUONG,ibid. Paper FE4 (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    H. KOMINE,Opt. Lett. 13 (1988) 643.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Idem, Presented at Tunable Solid-State Lasers Topical Meeting, 1–3 May 1989, Paper WA1 (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    D. W. COUTTS, M. D. AINSWORTH and J. A. PIPER, Presented at CLEO '89 (1989) Paper FK4 (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    J. T. LIN, A. HORNER and K. KATO, OSA Annual Meeting (1989) Postdeadline paper PD17.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    C. CHEN, A. JIANG, B. WU, G. YOU and S. LIN, Presented at CLEO '89 (1989) Paper ThQ1 (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    J. T. LIN, C. E. HUANG and J. Q. YAO,ibid. Paper ThQ2.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    J. T. LIN and K. KATO,SPIE 1220 (1990), in press.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    J. T. LIN, J. L. MONTGOMERY, J. R. DeSALVO and A. M. HORNER, in Proceedings, Advances in Solid-State Lasers (1990) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    W. P. RISK, J. C. BAUMERT, F. M. SCHELLENBERG, W. LENTH, W. P. RISK and G. C. BJORKLUMD,Appl. Phys. Lett. 51 (1987) 2192.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    W. P. RISK and W. LENTH, ibid.54 (1989) 789.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    R. BURNHAM, R. A. STOLZENBERGER and A. PINTO,IEEE Photon. Lett. 1 (1989) 27.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    H. VANHERZEELE, J. D. BIERLEIN and F. C. ZUMSTEG,Appl. Opt. 27 (1988) 3314.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    J. D. BIERLEIN and H. VANHERZEELE,J. Opt. Soc. Am. B6 (1989) 622.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    T. Y. FAN, C. E. HUANG, B. Q. HU, R. C. ECHARDT, Y. X. FAN, R. L. BYER and R. S. FEIGELSON,Appl. Opt. 26 (1987) 2390.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    J. C. BAUMERT, J. HOFFNAGLE and P. GUNTER,SPIE 492 (1984) 374.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    K. KATO,IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15 (1979) 410.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Idem, ibid.QE-18 (1982) 451.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    J. T. LIN,SPIE 1040 (1989) 129.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    J. A. ARMSTRONG, N. BLOEMBERGEN, J. DUCUING and P. S. PERHSAN,Phys. Rev. 127 (1962) 1918.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    DUAN FENG, N. B. NING, J. F. HONG, Y. S. YANG, J. S. ZHU, Z. YANG and Y. N. WANG,Appl. Phys. Lett. 37 (1980) 607.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    J. WEBJORN, F. LAURELL and G. ARVIDSSON, CLEO '89 (1989) Postdeadline Paper PD10 (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.).Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    G. A. MAGEL, M. M. FEJER and R. L. BYER,ibid. Paper ThQ3.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    E. L. LIM, M. M. FEJER and R. L. BYER,Electron. Lett. 25 (1989) 132.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Idem, ibid.25 (1989) 175.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    G. TOHMON, K. YAMAMOTO and T. TANUICHI, SPIE898 (1988) 70.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    D. A. BRYAN, R. GERSON and H. E. TOMASCHKE,Appl. Phys. Lett. 44 (1984) 847.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    J. L. NIGHTINGALE, W. J. SILVA, G. E. READE and A. RYBICKI,SPIE 681 (1986) 20.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    W. J. KOZLOVSKY, C. D. NABORS and R. L. BYER,IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24 (1988) 913.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    J. T. LIN and S. W. CHONG,Opt. Commun., submitted.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    L. M. DOROZHKIN, I. I. KURATOV, N. I. LEONYUK, T. I. TIMUCHENKO and A. V. SHESTAKOV,Soviet Tech. Phys. Lett. 7 (1981) 555.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    B. LU, J. WANG, H. PAN, M. JIANG, E. LIU and X. HOU,J. Appl. Phys. 66 (1989) 6052.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Z. D. LUO, J. T. LIN, A. D. JIANG, Y. C. HUANG and M. W. QUI,SPIE Proc. 1104 (1989) 132.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    J. T. LIN,ibid. 1220 (1990), in press.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    S. C. WANG, R. E. STONE and J. T. LIN, in Proceedings, Advances in Solid-state Lasers (1990) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.).Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    J. T. LIN and S. W. CHONG,Tech. Dig. OPTICS '89, 16–20 October 1989, Orlando, Florida, Paper WB5 (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.).Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    W. S. WANG and J. T. LIN,Mater. Res. Bull. 25 (1990) 71.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    J. D. BIERLEIN, H. VANHERZEELE and A. A. BALLMAN,Appl. Phys. Lett. 54 (1989) 783.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    D. N. NIKOGOWYAN,Soviet J. Quantum Electron. 7 (1977) 1.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Information Sheet, Cleveland Technology Inc. (1988).Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    D. HON, in ‘Laser Handbook’, edited by M. L. Stich, Vol. 3, B2 (North-Holland, New York, 1979) 421.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    R. F. BELT, G. GASHUROV and Y. S. LIU,Laser Focus (October 1985) 110.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    P. V. VIDAKOVIC, M. COQUILLAY and F. SALIN,J. Opt. Soc. Am. B4 (1987) 998.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    J. D. BIERLEIN, D. B. LAUBACHER, J. B. BROWN and C. J. VANDER POEL,Appl. Phys. Lett. 56 (1990) 1725.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    J. T. LIN, G. F. HUANG and M. Y. HWANG, SPIE 1220 (1990), in press.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    A. HARADA, Y. OKAZAKI, K. KAMIYAMA and S. UMEGAKI, Tech. Dig. CLEO'90, paper CFE2 (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman and Hall Ltd. 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. T. Lin
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Research in Electro-Optics and Lasers (CREOL) and Department of PhysicsUniversity of Central FloridaOrlandoUSA

Personalised recommendations