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Aging properties of extruded high-amylose starch

  • Randal L. Shogren
  • Brian K. Jasberg
Article

Abstract

The structural and mechanical properties of extruded high-amylose and normal cornstarch were studied as a function of time and humidity to determine the suitability of high-amylose cornstarch for use in biodegradable plastic materials. After extrusion at 170°C and 20–30% moisture, high-amylose starch was mostly amorphous, with small amounts of V- and A-type crystal structures. Tensile strengths for the extruded high-amylose starch ribbons were rather stable with time (65, 50, and 35 MPa at 20, 50, and 80% RH) and were higher than those for normal cornstarch (25, 40, and 15 MPa after 84 days at 20, 50, and 80% RH). Elongations at break declined gradually with time for high-amylose starch (6, 11, and 11% after 84 days at 20, 50, and 80% RH), while rapid declines were seen for normal cornstarch at higher humidities (3, 9, and 3% after 84 days at 20, 50, and 80% RH). Differential scanning calorimetry revealed that normal cornstarch aged at a high humidity had much larger sub-Tg endotherms than high-amylose cornstarch. These endotherms reflect decreases in enthalpy and free volume which occur in amorphous polymers due to structural relaxation. It appears, therefore, that plastic materials prepared from gelatinized or melted high-amylose cornstarch should have greater strength and flexibility and slower physical aging than those prepared from gelatinized normal cornstarch.

Key words

Starch high amylose amylomaize films mechanical properties 

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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Randal L. Shogren
    • 1
  • Brian K. Jasberg
    • 1
  1. 1.U.S. Department of AgriculturePlant Polymer Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Agricultural Research ServicePeoria

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