Cross-polarisation and astigmatism in matching grooves
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Circular grooves are frequently cut in dielectric lenses and windows to form antireflection layers. These induce a phase difference between polarisation components, with consequent loss of power into cross-polarisation and a phase error similar to astigmatism. Expressions derived for these losses show that the losses are generally small compared to the insertion losses of an unmatched surface. For several consecutive surfaces the effects may be quite significant.
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