Journal of Chemical Ecology

, Volume 20, Issue 8, pp 1955–1967 | Cite as

Plant-natural enemy association in tritrophic system,Cotesia rubecula-Pieris rapae-brassicaceae (Cruciferae). III: Collection and identification of plant and frass volatiles

  • Nicky G. Agelopoulos
  • Michael A. Keller
Article

Abstract

To elucidate the identity of the volatile compounds that could be involved in the searching behavior of the parasitoidCotesia rubecula Marshall (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), the volatiles released by cabbage and frass of Lepidoptera feeding on cabbage were collected and analyzed using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The volatiles emitted by intact cabbage were α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene, 1,8-cineole,n-hexyl acetate,cis-3-hexen-1-yl acetate, and dimethyl trisulfide. Mechanical damage on an intact plant induced the release of two more compounds,trans-2-hexenal and 1-methoxy-3-methylene-2-pentanone. Current feeding by larvae ofPieris rapae L. (Pieridae) induced the plant to release all the compounds released after mechanical damage and additionally 4-methyl-3-pentenal and allyl isothiocyanate. Current feeding by larvae ofPlutella xylostella L. (Plutellidae) induced the plant to release all the compounds present after mechanical damage and additionally allyl isothiocyanate. The volatiles emitted after feeding by the lepidopterans had ceased were the same as those emitted by cabbage damaged by mechanical means. The blend of volatiles emitted by frass was comprised of plant chemicals, mainly sulfur compounds. Frass ofP. rapae emitted allyl isothiocyanate, methyl isothiocyanate, methyl propyl sulfide, dimethyl trisulfide,S-methyl methane thiosulfinate, 4-methyl-3-pentenal,trans-2-hexenal, and 2,3-dihydro-4-methyl furan. Frass ofP. xylostella emitted only dimethyl trisulfide andS-methyl methane thiosulfinate. The blend of volatiles emitted by frass is herbivore-species specific.

Key Words

Pieris rapae Lepidoptera Pieridae Plutellidae Plutella xylostella Cotesia rubecula Hymenoptera Braconidae Brassica oleracea capitata infochemicals plant volatiles 

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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicky G. Agelopoulos
    • 1
  • Michael A. Keller
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of EntomologyWageningen Agricultural UniversityWageningenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Crop Protection, Waite CampusUniversity of AdelaideGlen OsmondAustralia

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