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Journal of Chemical Ecology

, Volume 20, Issue 7, pp 1537–1555 | Cite as

Aggregation pheromone for the pepper weevil,Anthonomus eugenii cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): Identification and field activity

  • Fred J. Eller
  • Robert J. Bartelt
  • Baruch S. Shasha
  • David J. Schuster
  • David G. Riley
  • Philip A. Stansly
  • Thomas F. Mueller
  • Kenneth D. Shuler
  • Bruce Johnson
  • James H. Davis
  • Carol A. Sutherland
Article

Abstract

This study describes the identification of an aggregation pheromone for the pepper weevil,Anthonomus eugenii and field trials of a synthetic pheromone blend. Volatile collections and gas chromatography revealed the presence of six male-specific compounds. These compounds were identified using chromatographic and spectral techniques as: (Z)-2-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)ethanol, (E)-2-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)ethanol, (Z)-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)acetaldehyde, (E)-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)acetaldehyde, (E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienoic acid (geranic acid), and (E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol (geraniol). The emission rates of these compounds from feeding males were determined to be about: 7.2, 4.8, 0.45, 0.30, 2.0, and 0.30µg/male/day, respectively. Sticky traps baited with a synthetic blend of these compounds captured more pepper weevils (both sexes) than did unbaited control traps or pheromone-baited boll weevil traps. Commercial and laboratory formulations of the synthetic pheromone were both attractive. However, the commercial formulation did not release geranic acid properly, and geranic acid is necessary for full activity. The pheromones of the pepper weevil and the boll weevil are compared. Improvements for increasing trap efficiency and possible uses for the pepper weevil pheromone are discussed. A convenient method for purifying geranic acid is also described.

Key Words

Attractant alcohol aldehyde geranic acid monitoring aggregation pheromone Anthonomus eugenii pepper weevil Coleoptera Curculionidae 

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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fred J. Eller
    • 1
  • Robert J. Bartelt
    • 1
  • Baruch S. Shasha
    • 1
  • David J. Schuster
    • 2
  • David G. Riley
    • 3
  • Philip A. Stansly
    • 4
  • Thomas F. Mueller
    • 5
  • Kenneth D. Shuler
    • 6
  • Bruce Johnson
    • 7
  • James H. Davis
    • 8
  • Carol A. Sutherland
    • 8
  1. 1.Bioactive Constituents Research UnitNational Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, USDA/ARS/MWAPeoria
  2. 2.Gulf Coast Research & Education CenterUniversity of Florida/IFASBradenton
  3. 3.Texas Agriculture Experiment StationWeslaco
  4. 4.Southwest Florida Research & Education CenterUniversity of Florida/IFASImmokalee
  5. 5.Collier Enterprises, Inc.Immokalee
  6. 6.Palm Beach County Cooperative Extension ServiceWest Palm Beach
  7. 7.Advanced Ag, Inc.Loxahatchee
  8. 8.New Mexico Department of AgricultureLas Cruces

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