, Volume 47, Issue 1, pp 9–22 | Cite as

The dental amalgam issue. A review

  • M. Hanson
  • J. Pleva


Using an interdisciplinary approach, the current position in the dental amalgam controversy and the potential impact of amalgam mercury on human health are reviewed. Aspects of materials science, corrosion, mercury exposure, toxicology, neurology and immunology are included.

New data on mercury exposure from corroded amalgam fillings in vivo are presented. The exposure can reach levels considerably over known threshold limit values. Also, measurements of mercury absorption from intraoral air are presented. The vital importance of avoiding a galvanic amalgam-gold coupling is emphasized. The symptomatology of a disabled patient, who recovered after amalgam removal, has been included.

It is concluded that discussion of the dental amalgam issue has suffered from the lack of an interdisciplinary approach. It would be wise to learn from the lesson of acrodynia, and consider amalgam mercury among other possible factors in neurological and immunological diseases of unclear etiology.

Key words

Dental amalgam corrosion mercury release threshold values toxicity neurology immunology 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Abraham, J. E., Svare, C. W., and Frank, C. W., The effect of dental amalgam restorations on blood mercury levels. J. dent. Res.63 (1984) 71–73.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Adams, C. R., Ziegler, D. K., and Lin, J. T., Mercury intoxication simulating amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. JAMA250 (1983) 642–643.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ahlqwist, M., Bengtsson, C., Furunes, B., Hollender, L., and Lapidus, L., Number of amalgam tooth fillings in relation to subjectively experienced symptoms. Commun. dent. oral Epidemiol.16 (1988) 227–231.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ahlrot-Westerlund, B., Carlmark, B., Grönquist, S.-O., Johansson, E., Lindh, U., Theorell, H., and de Vahl, K., Altered distribution patterns of macro- and trace elements in human tissues of patients with decreased levels of blood selenium. Nutr. Res. Suppl.1 (1985) 442–450.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Baader, E. W., Quecksilbervergiftung, in: Handbuch der gesamten Arbeitsmedizin, vol. 2, pp. 158–176 (1961).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Baader, E. W., and Holstein, E. (Eds), Das Quecksilber, seine Gewinnung, technische Verwendung und Giftwirkung, R. Schoetz Verl., Berlin 1933.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Baasch, E., Theoretische Ueberlegungen zur Aetiologie der Sclerosis Multiplex. Die Multiple Sklerose eine Quecksilberallergie? Schw. Arch. Neurol. Neurochir. Psychiat.98 (1966) 1–18.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Barber, T. E., Inorganic mercury intoxication reminiscent of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. J. occup. Med.20 (1978) 667–669.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Berglund, A., Pohl, L., Olsson, S., and Bergman, M., Determination of the rate of release of intra-oral mercury vapor from amalgam. J. dent. Res.67 (1988) 1235–1242.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bernaudin, J. F., Druet, E., Druet, P., and Masse, R., Inhalation or ingestion of organic or inorganic mercurials produces autoimmune disease in rats. Clin. Immunol. Immunopath.20 (1981) 129–135.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bidstrup, P. L., Bonell, J. A., Harvey, D. G., and Locket, S., Chronic mercury poisoning in men repairing direct-current meters. Lancet2 (1951) 856–861.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Borinski, P., Die Herkunft des Quecksilbers in den menschlichen Ausscheidungen. Zahnärztl. Rundschau40 (1931) 223–230.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Boyd, M. A., and Richardson, A. S., Frequency of amalgam replacement in general dental practice. J. Can. dent. Ass.10 (1985) 763–766.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Brecht-Bergen, N., Korrosionsuntersuchungen an Zinn-Silber-Amalgamen. Zeitschr. Elektrochemie39 (1933) 927–935.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Brune, D., A model for recording mercury release from an amalgam surface. Biomaterials6 (1985) 357–359.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Brune, D., Metal release from dental biomaterials. Biomaterials7 (1986) 163–175.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Burgener, P., and Burgener, A., Erfahrungen über chronische Quecksilbervergiftungen. Schw. med. Wschr.8 (1952) 204–210.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cantoni, O., Christie, N. T., Swann, A., Drath, D. B., and Costa, M., Mechanism of HgCl2 cytotoxicity in cultured mammalian cells. Molec. Pharmac.26 (1984) 360–368.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chang, L. W., and Hartmann, H. A., Blood-brain barrier dysfunction in experimental mercury intoxication. Acta neuropath.21 (1972) 179–184.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chavez, E., and Holguin, J. A., Mitochondrial calcium release as induced by Hg2+. J. biol. Chem.263 (1988) 3582–3587.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cherian, M. G., Hursh, J. B., Clarkson, T. W., and Allen, J., Radioactive mercury distribution in biological fluids and excretion in human subjects after inhalation of mercury vapor. Arch. envir. Hlth33 (1978) 109–114.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Clarkson, T. W., The pharmacology of mercury compounds. A. Rev. Pharmac.12 (1972) 375–406.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Contrino, J., Marucha, P., Ribaudo, R., Ference, R., Bigazzi, P. E., and Kreutzer, D. L., Effects of mercury on human polymorphonuclear leukocyte function in vitro. Am. J. Path.132 (1988) 110–118.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cremer, F., (Ed.), Die Fabrikation der Silber- und Quecksilber-Spiegel. Hartlebens Verlag, Wien/Leipzig 1904.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Daunderer, M., Amalgam. Klin. Toxikologie46 (1989) 1–54.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    DeLong, R., Sakaguchi, R. L., Douglas, W. H., and Pintado, M. R., The wear of dental amalgam in an artificial mouth: a clinical correlation. Dent. Mater.1 (1985) 238–242.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dencker, I., and Schütz, A., Kvicksilverinnehållet i kosten. Läkartidn.68 (1971) 4031–4033.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dieter, M. P., Luster, M. I., Boorman, G. A., Jameson, C. W., Dean, J. H., and Cox, J. W., Immunological and biochemical responses in mice treated with mercuric chloride. Toxic. appl. Pharmac.68 (1983) 218.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Djerassi, E., and Berova, N., The possibilities of allergic reactions from silver amalgam restorations. Int. dent. J.19 (1969) 481–488.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Domanska-Janik, K., and Bourre, J. M., Effect of mercury on rabbit myelin CNP-ase in vitro. Neurotoxicology8 (1987) 23–32.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dörffer, U., Anorexia hydrargyra. Kasuistik aus der Praxis. Monatschr. Kinderheilk.137 (1989) 472.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Druet, P., Hirsch, F., Sapin, C., Druet, E., and Bellon, B., Immune dysregulation and autoimmunity induced by toxic agents. Transpl. Proc.14 (1982) 482–484.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Eggleston, D. W., Effect of dental amalgam and nickel alloys on T-lymphocytes: preliminary report. J. Prosth. Dent.51 (1984) 617–623.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Eide, I., and Syversen, T. L. M., Uptake of elemental mercury and activity of catalase in rat, hamster, guinea-pig, normal and acatalasemic mice. Acta pharmac. toxic.51 (1982) 371–376.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Espevik, S., Dental Amalgam. A. Rev. Mater. Sci.7 (1977) 55–72.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Espevik, S., In vitro corrosion of dental amalgams with different Cu content. Scand. J. dent. Res.85 (1977) 631–636.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Espevik, S., and Mjör, I. A., Degradation of amalgam restorations in vivo, in: Corrosion and Degradation of Implant Materials, pp. 316–327. ASTM STP 684 (1979).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Fanconi, G., Botsztejn, A., and Schenker, P., Ueberempfindlichkeitsreaktionen auf Quecksilbermedikation im Kindesalter mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Calomelkrankheit. Helv. paediatr. Acta2, suppl. 4 (1947) 3–46.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Fleischmann, P., Zur Frage der Gefährlichkeit kleinster Quecksilbermengen. Zschr. angew. Chem.41 (1928) 66–70.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Fraunhofer, J. A., and Staheli, P. J., Gold-amalgam galvanic cells. Br. dent. J.132 (1972) 357–362.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Fredin, B., Studies on the mercury release from dental amalgam fillings. Swed. J. Biol. Med.3 (1988) 8–15.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Friberg, L., and Vostal, J., (Eds), Mercury in the Environment, CRC Press, Cleveland 1972.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Frykholm, K. O., Mercury from dental amalgam. Its toxic and allergic effects and some comments on occupational hygiene. Acta odont. scand.15, suppl. 22 (1957) 1–108.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gay, D. D., Cox, R. D., and Reinhardt, J. W., Chewing releases mercury from fillings. Lancet1 (1979) 985–986.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gerstner, H. B., and Huff, J. E., Clinical toxicology of mercury. J. Toxic. envir. Hlth2 (1977) 491–526.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gmelin's Handbuch der anorganischen Chemie, 34A, 2nd edn, Lief.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Guthrow, C. E., Johnson, L. B., and Lawless, K. R., Corrosion of dental amalgam and its component phases. J. dent. Res.46 (1967) 1372–1381.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hahn, L. J., Kloiber, R., Vimy, M. J., Takahashi, Y., and Lorscheider, F. L., Dental ‘silver’ tooth fillings: a source of mercury exposure revealed by whole-body image scan and tissue analysis FASEB J.3 (1989) 2641–2646.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Harndt, E., ergebnisse klinischer Untersuchungen zur Lösung der Amalgam-Quecksilberfrage. Dt. zahnärztl. Wschr.33 (1930) 564–575.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Hugoson, A., Results obtained from patients referred for the investigation of complaints related to oral galvanism. Swed. dent. J. 10 (1986) 15–28.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hursh, J. B., Clarkson, T. W., Cherian, M. G., Vostal, J., and Mallie, R. V., Clearance of mercury (Hg-197, Hg-203) vapor inhaled by human subjects. Arch. envir. Hlth31 (1976) 302–309.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hyams, B. L., and Ballon, H. C., Dissimilar metals in the mouth as a possible cause of otherwise unexplainable symptoms. Can. med. Ass. J. (1933) 488–491.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Ingalls, T. H., Triggers for multiple sclerosis. Lancet2 (1986) 160.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Jontell, M., Haraldson, T., Persson, L.-O., and Öhman, S.-C., An oral and psychosocial examination of patients with presumed oral galvanism. Swed. dent. J.9 (1985) 175–185.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Jörgensen, K. D., Dental Amalgams (in danish) p. 8. Odontologisk Boghandels Forl. 1976.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Jörgensen, K. D., The mechanism of marginal fracture of amalgam fillings. Acta odont. scand.23 (1965) 347–389.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Jörgensen, K. D., and Saito, T., Structure and corrosion of dental amalgams. Acta odont. scand.28 (1970) 129–142.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kantarjian, A. D., A syndrome clinically resembling amyotrophic lateral sclerosis following chronic mercurialism. Neurology11 (1961) 639–644.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Klock, B., Blomgren, J., Ripa, U., and Andrup, B., Effekt av amalgamavlägsnande på patienter som misstänker att de lider eller har lidit av amalgamförgiftning. Tandläkartidn.81 (1989) 1297–1302.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Knappwost, A., Gura, E., Fuhrmann, D., and Enginalev, A., Abgabe von Quecksilberdampf aus Dentalamalgamen unter Mundbedingungen. Zahnärztl. Welt/Reform94 (1985) 131–139.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Knolle, G., and Günther, B., Beitrag zu der Ätiologiehypothese: Amalgam und Multiple Sklerose. Schw. Monatschr. Zahnheilk.77 (1967) 761–776.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kozono, Y., Moore, B. K., Phillips, R. W., and Swartz, M. L., Dissolution of amalgam in saline solution. J. biomed. Mat. Res.16 (1982) 767–774.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kröncke, A., Ott, K., Petschelt, A., Schaller, K.-H., Szecsi, M., and Valentin, H., Ueber die Quecksilberkonzentrationen in Blut und Urin von Personen mit und ohne Amalgamfüllungen. Dt. zahnärztl. Z.35 (1980) 803–808.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kussmaul, A., (Ed.), Untersuchungen über den constitutionellen Mercurialismus und sein Verhältniss zur constitutionellen Syphilis. Würzburg, 1861.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Lain, E., and Caughron, G. S., Electrogalvanic phenomena of the oral cavity caused by dissimilar metallic restorations. J. Am. dent. Ass.23 (1936) 1641–1652.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Lain, E., Schriever, W., and Caughron, G. S., Problem of electrogalvanism in the oral cavity caused by dissimilar dental metals. J. Am. dent. Ass.27 (1940) 1765–1772.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Lamm, O., and Pratt, H., Subclinical effects of exposure to inorganic mercury revealed by somatosensory-evoked potentials. Eur. Neurol.24 (1985) 237–243.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Lambrechts, P., Vuylsteke, M., Vanherle, G., and Davidson, C. L., Quantitative in vivo wear of posterior dental restorations, four-year result. J. dent. Res.62 (1985) 370, abstr. no. 1759.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Langworth, S., Elinder, C.-G., and Åkesson, A., Mercury exposure from dental fillings. I. Mercury concentrations in blood and urine. Swed. dent. J.12 (1988) 69–70.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Lavstedt, S., and Sundberg, H., Medicinska diagnoser och sjukdomssymtom relaterade till amalgamfyllningar, Tandläkartidn.81 (1989) 81–88.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Malmström, C., Cracking and cuspfractures in teeth with amalgam fillings. Tidskr. Landlaeger6 (1986) 65–68;8 (1988) 53–59.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Marek, M., Acceleration of corrosion of dental amalgams by abrasion. J. dent. Res.63 (1984) 1010–1013.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Marek, M., and Okabe, T., Corrosion behaviour of structural phases in high copper dental amalgams. J. biomed. Mat. Res.12 (1978) 857–866.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Marxkors, R., Korrosionserscheinungen an Amalgamfüllungen und deren Auswirkungen auf den menschlichen Organismus. Dt. Zahnärzteblatt24 (1970) 53–65.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Mateer, R. R., and Reitz, C. D., Corrosion of amalgam restorations. J. dent. Res.49 (1970) 399–407.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Mayer, R., and Diehl, W., Abgabe von Quecksilber aus Amalgamfüllungen in den Speichel, Dt. zahnärztl. Z.31 (1976) 855–859.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Maximum Allowable Concentrations of Mercury Compounds. Report of an International Committee. Arch. envir. Hlth19 (1969) 891-905.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Meeuwissen, R., Van Elteren, P., Eschen, S., and Mulder, J., Durability of amalgam restorations in premolars and molars in Dutch servicemen. Commun. dent. Hlth2 (1985) 293–302.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Moeschlin, S., (Ed), Klinik und Therapie der Vergiftungen. 6th edn. G. Thieme, Stuttgart 1980.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Müller-Fahlbusch, H., and Wöhning, T., Psychosomatische Untersuchung der mit Amalgamfüllungen in Verbindung gebrachten Beschwerden. Dt. zahnärztl. Z.38 (1983) 663–667.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Nordin, J., Yrkessjukdomar. Almqvist & Wiksell (1943) 184.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Nylander, M., Friberg, L., and Lind, B., Mercury concentrations in the human brain and kidneys in relation to exposure from dental amalgam fillings. Swed. dent. J.11 (1987) 179–187.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Nylander, M., Mercury in pituitary glands of dentists. Lancet1 (1986) 442.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Nystrand, A., Amalgam. Läkartidn.83 (1986) 505–522.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Oettingen, W.F., von, (Ed), Poisoning. A Guide to Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment. Saunder Co., 1958.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Patterson, J. E., Weissberg, B. G., and Dennison, P. J., Mercury in human breath from dental amalgams. Bull. envir. Contam. Toxic.34 (1985) 459–468.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Pelletier, L., Pasquier, R., Hirsch, F., Sapin, C., and Druet, P., In vivo self-reactivity of mononuclear cells to T cells and macrophages exposed to HgCl2. Eur. J. Immunol.15 (1985) 460–465.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Pleva, J., Mercury poisoning from dental amalgam. J. orthomol. Psychiat.12 (1983) 184–193.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Pleva, J., Corrosion and mercury release from dental amalgam. J. orthomol. Med.4 (1989) 141–158.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Poulsson, E., (Ed), Lehrbuch der Pharmakologie. 6th edn. 1922, 16th edn 1949.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Rahola, T., Hattula, T., Korolainen, A., and Miettinen, J. K., Elimination of free and protein-bound ionic mercury (203Hg2+) in man. Ann. clin. Res.5 (1973) 214–219.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Rehde, O., (Ed), Invalidiserande huvudvärk, pp. 117–121. R-Dental AB, Falun, Sweden 1985. (ISBN 91-7810-137-9.)Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Robinson, C. J. G., Abraham, A. A., and Balazs, T., Induction of anti-nuclear antibodies by mercuric chloride in mice. Clin. exp. Immunol.58 (1984) 300–306.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Rost, A., Amalgamschäden. Zahnärztl. Prax.20 (1976) 475–480.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Rupp, N. W., and Pfaffenberger, G. O., Significance to health of mercury used in dentistry: a review. J. Am. dent. Ass.82 (1971) 1401–1407.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Sapin, C., Mandet, C., Druet, E., Günther, G., and Druet, P., Immune complex type disease induced by HgCl2: Genetic control of susceptibility. Transpl. Proc.13 (1981) 1404–1406.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Sakar, N. K., Marshall, G. W., Moser, J. B., and Greener, E. H., In vivo and in vitro corrosion products of dental amalgam. J. dent. Res.54 (1975) 1031–1038.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Schneider, V., Untersuchungen zur Quecksilberabgabe aus Silberamalgam-Füllungen mit Hilfe flammenloser Atomabsorption. Dt. zahnärztl. Z.32 (1977) 475–476.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Schneider, P. E., and Sarkar, N. K., Mercury release from Dispersalloy amalgam. 1982, IADR Abstr. No. 630.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Schoonover, I. C., and Souder, W., Corrosion of dental alloys. J. Am. dent. Ass.28 (1941) 1278–1291.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Schulz, H., Wirkung und Anwendung der inorganischen Arzneistoffe. G. Thieme, Leipzig 1907.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Sies, H., (Ed.), Oxidative Stress. Academic Press, London 1985.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Smith, D. L. Jr., Mental effects of mercury poisoning. South. med. J.71 (1978) 904–905.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Smith, R. G., Vorwald, A. J., Patil, L. S., and Mooney, T. F., Effects of exposure to mercury in the manufacture of chlorine, Am. ind. Hyg. Ass. J.31 (1970) 687–700.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Snapp, K. R., Boyer, D. B., Peterson, L. C., and Svare, C. W., The contribution of dental amalgam to mercury in blood, J. dent. Res.68 (1989) 780–785.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Steffensen, K., Om kronisk kvicksölvforgiftning foraarsaget af tandplomber. Ugeskr. Laeg.96 (1934) 855–858.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Stock, A., Die Gefährlichkeit des Quecksilberdampfes. Z. angew. Chem.39 (1926) 461–466.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Stock, A., Die Gefährlichkeit des Quecksilberdampfes und der Amalgame. Med. Klin.22 (1926) 1250–1252.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Stock, A., Die Gefährlichkeit des Quecksilbers und der Amalgam-Zahnfüllungen. Z. angew. Chem.41 (1928) 663–672.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Stock, A., Die chronische Quecksilber- und Amalgamvergiftung, Arch. Gewerbepath.7 (1936) 388–413.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Stock, A., Die chronische Quecksilber- und Amalgamvergiftung. Zahnärztl. Rundschau10 (1939) 403–407.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Stock, A., and Cucuel, F., Der Quecksilbergehalt der menschlichen Ausscheidungen und des menschlichen Blutes. Z. angew. Chem.47 (1934) 641–647.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Stock, A., and Heller, R., Die Bestimmung kleiner Quecksilbermengen. Z. angew. Chem.39 (1926) 466–468.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Storlazzi, E. D., and Elkins, H. B., The significance of urinary mercury. I. Occupational mercury exposure. II. Mercury absorption from mercury-bearing dental fillings and antiseptics. J. ind. Hyg. Toxic.23 (1941) 459–465.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Struntz, H., (Ed.), Verrat an Deiner Gesundheit. Albert Amann Verlag, München 1956.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Stutte, H., and Groh, I., Zur Neuropathologie der Quecksilbervergiftung im Kindesalter. Fortschr. Neurol. Psychiat.29 (1961) 464–474.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Störtebecker, R., Direct transport of mercury from the oronasal cavity to the cranial cavity as a cause of dental amalgam poisoning. Swed. J. Biol. Med.3 (1989) 8–21.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Svare, C. W., Peterson, L. C., Reinhardt, J. W., Boyer, D. B., Frank, C. W., Gay, D. D., and Cox, R. D., The effect of dental amalgams on mercury levels in expired air. J. dent. Res.60 (1981) 1668–1671.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Taskinen, H., Kinnunen, E., and Riihimäki, V., A possible case of mercury-related toxicity resulting from the grinding of old amalgam restorations, Scand. J. envir. Hlth15 (1989) 302–304.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Till, T., and Maly, K., Zum Nachweis der Lyse von Hg aus Silberamalgam von Zahnfüllungen, Der Praktische Arzt32 (1978) 1042–1056.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Till, T., Untersuchungen über den Temperatureinfluss auf elektrochemische Vorgänge an metallischen Zahnreparaturmaterialien. Zahnärztl. Welt/Reform83 (1974) 980–982.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Tompsett, S. L., and Smith, D. C., Mercury in biological materials. J. clin. Path.12 (1959) 219–221.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Trachtenberg, I. M., (Ed.), Chronic Effects of Mercury on Organisms. Transl. from Russian. U.S. Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare DHEW Publ. 74–473, 1974.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Uetrech, J., Mechanism of hypersensitivity reactions: proposed involvement of reactive metabolites generated by activated leukocytes. Trends pharmac. Sci.10 (1989) 463–467.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Vimy, M. J., and Lorscheider, F. L., Intra-oral mercury released from dental amalgam, J. dent. Res.64 (1985) 1069–1071.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Vimy, M. J., and Lorscheider, F. L., Serial measurements of intraoral air mercury: estimation of daily does from dental amalgam. J. dent. Res.64 (1985) 1072–1075.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Vimy, M. J., Takahashi, Y., and Lorscheider, F. L., Maternal-fetal distribution of mercury (203Hg) released from dental amalgam fillings. Am. J. Physiol.258 (1990) R939-R945.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Viola, P. L., L'influenza del cloro sull'intossicazione da vapori di mercurio. Med. Lavoro58 (1967) 60–65.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Viola, P. L., and Cassano, G. B., The effect of chlorine on mercury vapor intoxication. Autoradiographic study. Med. Lavoro59 (1968) 437–444.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Vrijhoef, M. M. A., Vermeersch, A. G., and Spanauf, A. J., Dental Amalgam. Quintessence Publ. Co. Inc. 1980.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Wagner, E., Beitrag zur Klärung des Korrosionsverhaltens der Silber-Zinn Amalgame. Dt. zahnärztl. Z.17 (1962) 99–106.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Walls, A. W. G., Wallwork, M. A., Holland, I. S., and Murray, J. J., The longevity of occlusal amalgam restorations in first permanent molars of child patients, Br. dent. J.158 (1985) 133–136.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Warkany, J., Acrodynia—Postmortem of a disease. Am. J. Dis. Child.112 (1966) 147–156.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Warkany, J., and Hubbard, D. M., Acrodynia and mercury. J. Pediatr.42 (1953) 365–386.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Webb, J. L., (Ed.), Enzyme and metabolic inhibitors, vol. 2, pp. 841. Academic Press, London 1966.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Wesselhaeft, W. P., A few suggestions about mercurial fillings for teeth. Proc. int. Hannemann Ass.16 (1896) 200–209.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Zamm, A. V., Candida albicans therapy. Is there ever an end to it? Dental mercury removal: an effective adjunct. J. orthomol. Med.1 (1986) 261–266.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Zangger, H., Erfahrungen über Quecksilbervergiftungen. Arch. Gewerbepath.1 (1930) 539–560.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Ziff, M. F., and Ziff, S., Tracking the elusive mercury TLV. Bio-Probe Newsletter 3, dec. 1986, 1–24 (Editorial office 4401 Real Ct., Orlando, Fl. 32 808, USA.)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Hanson
    • 1
  • J. Pleva
    • 2
  1. 1.VeberödSweden
  2. 2.HagforsSweden

Personalised recommendations