Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry

, Volume 197, Issue 1, pp 195–202

Incorporation of tritium from wrist watches

  • F. Schönhofer
  • K. Pock


Watches are consumer products and are subject to the regulations that control food and consumer products. Elevated concentrations of tritium were found in the urine of persons who wore wrist watches with luminous dials and plastic cases. High emissions of tritium from these watches were observed. In an experiment, a volunteer wore a watch with high emissions and the build up of the tritium concentration in urine was monitored, as well as the decline after removing the watch. Possible pathways for the incorporation and its mechanism are considered. In spite of the relatively high activity concentrations observed, the dose is negligible. On the other hand, the principle “ALARA” can be achieved without any costs by simply choosing other types of watches.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Health Phys., Vol. 65, No. 6, (1993).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    P. BRUNNER et al., The Lancet, 343 (1994) 116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    C.K. FITZSIMMONS, D.N. McNELIS, D.T. WRUBLE, Health Phys., 22 (1972) 574.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    K. KREJCI, A. ZELLER, “Tritium Pollution in the Swiss Luminous Compound Industry,” IAEA-Symposium “Behavior of Tritium in the Environment,” San Francisco, 1978.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    E. TSCHIRF, W. BAUMANN, R. NIESNER, “Radiation Map of Austria,” Federal Ministry for Health and Environmental Protection, Vienna, 1975.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    F. SCHÖNHOFER, Radiat. Prot. Dos., 45 (1992) 123.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    H. FRIEDMANN et al., “The Austrian Radon Project,” Proceedings of the “First International Workshop on Indoor Radon Remedial Action,” Rimini, Italy, 1993, in press.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    D. RANK, “Environmental Tritium in Hydrology: Present State (1992),” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Advances in Liquid Scintillation Spectrometry, eds. J.E. Noakes, F. Schönhofer, H.A. Polach, 1992, p. 327, Radiocarbon, 1993.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    F. SCHÖNHOFER, Radiocarbon, 34 (1992) 768.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Strahlenschutzgesetz 1969, BGBl. Nr. 227/1969, (Austrian Radiation Protection Law).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    P. BRUNNER, personal communication.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    D. RANK, Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Geoscientific Aspects of Environmental Protection, Vienna, 27–29 April 1994, in press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Schönhofer
    • 1
  • K. Pock
    • 1
  1. 1.Federal Institute for Food Control and ResearchVienna(Austria)

Personalised recommendations