Lasers in Medical Science

, Volume 1, Issue 4, pp 235–244 | Cite as

Effect of photosensitizer concentration in tissue on the penetration depth of photoactivating light

  • Brian C. Wilson
  • Michael S. Patterson
  • Diane M. Burns
Article

Abstract

The additional optical absorption in tissue resulting from the uptake of exogenous photosensitizers increases the effective attenuation of photoactivating light. This may be significant for the irradiation of solid tumours in photodynamic therapy, since it reduces the depth or volume of tissue treated. The effect has been studied in vitro by using dihaematoporphyrin ether (DHE) and 630 nm light in tissues representing a wide range of absorption and scattering conditions. While the attenuation may be markedly changed by small concentrations of DHE in pure scattering media, tissues with significant inherent light absorption are little affected by the additional absorption of DHE at concentrations relevant to clinical photodynamic therapy. However, it is shown that for other potential photosensitizers such as the phthalocyanines, which have substantially greater absorption at the treatment wavelength than DHE, the penetration of light in tissues may be significantly reduced.

Key words

Dihaematoporphyrin ether Aluminium chlorosulphonated phthalocyanine Penetration depth Diffusion theory Photodynamic therapy 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Dougherty TJ, Weishaupt KR, Boyle DG. Photodynamic sensitizers. In: DeVita VT et al (eds)Cancer: Principles of Oncology. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1985,2:2272–9Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wilson BC, Patterson MS. The physics of photodynamic therapy.Phys Med Biol 1986,31:327–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    van Gemert JC, Berenbaum MC. and Gijsberg GHM. Wavelength and light-dose dependence in tumour phototherapy with haematoporphyrin derivative.Br J Cancer 1985,52:43–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Doiron DR, Svaasand CO, Profio AE. Light dosimetry in tissue: application to photoradiation therapy. In: Kessel D, Dougherty TJ (eds)Porphyrin photosensitization, New York: Plenum, 1983:63–76Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wilson BC, Jeeves WP, Lowe DM. In vivo and postmortem measurements of the attenuation spectra of light in mammalian tissues.Photochem Photobiol 1985,42:153–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Profio AE.Radiation shielding and dosimetry, New York: Wiley, 1979Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    van Gemert JC, Hulsbergen Henning JP. A model approach to laser coagulation of dermal vascular lesions.Arch Dermatol Res 1981,270:429–39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wan S, Anderson RR, Parrish JA. Analytic modeling for the optical properties of the skin with in vitro and in vivo applications.Photochem Photobiol 1981,34:493–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Svaasand LO, Ellingsen R. Optical penetration in human intracranial tumors.Photochem Photobiol 1983,38:283–99Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Marynissen JPA, Star WM. Phantom measurements for light dosimetry using isotropic and small aperture detectors. In: Doiron DR, Gomer CJ (eds)Porphyrin photosensitization and treatment of tumors, New York: A.R. Liss, 1984:133–48Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wilksh PA, Jacka F, Blake AJ. Studies of light propagation through tissue. In: Doiron DR, Gomer CJ (eds)Porphyrin photosensitization and treatment of tumors, New York: A.R. Liss, 1984:149–61Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Profio AE, Sarnaik J. Fluorescence of HPD for tumor detection and dosimetry in photoradiation therapy. In: Doiron DR, Gomer CJ (eds)Porphyrin photosensitization and treatment of tumors, New York: A.R. Liss, 1984:163–75Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Flock ST, Patterson MS, Wilson BC, Burns DM. Optical properties of tissues at 632.8 nanometers.Photochem Photobiol 1986,43:15S (abstr)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Powers SK, Brown JT. Light dosimetry in brain tissue: an in vivo model applicable to photodynamic therapy.Lasers Surg Med 1986,6:318–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bown SG, Tralau CJ, Coleridge Smith PD, Akdemir D, Wieman TJ. Photodynamic therapy with porphyrin and phthalocyanine sensitization—quantitative studies in normal rat liver.Br J Cancer 1986,54:43–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hisazumi H, Naito K, Misaki T, Koshida K, Yamamoto H. An experimental study of photodynamic therapy using a pulsed gold vapor laser. In: Jori G, Perria C (eds)Photodynamic therapy of tumors and other diseases, Padova: Liberian Progetto Editore, 1985:251–4Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cowled PA, Grace JR, Forbes IJ. Comparison of the efficacy of pulsed and continuous-wave red laser light in induction of photo-cytotoxicity by hematoporphyrin derivative.Photochem Photobiol 1984,39:115–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    McKenzie AL. How may external and interstitial illumination be compared in laser photodynamic therapy?Phys Med Biol 1985,5:455–60Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wilson BC, Adam G. A monte carlo model for the absorption and flux distributions of light in tissue.Med Phys 1983,10:824–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wilson BC, Muller PJ, Yanch JC. Instrumentation and light dosimetry for intra-operative photodynamic therapy (PDT) of malignant brain tumors.Phys Med Biol 1986,31:125–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Preuss LE, Bolen FP, Cain BW. A comment on spectral transmittance in mammalian skeletal muscle.Photochem Photobiol 1983,37:113–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gomer CJ, Rucker N, Mark C, Benedict WF, Murphree AL.3H-hematoporphyrin derivative in athymic nude mice heterotransplanted with human retinoblastoma.Invest Ophthalmol & Visual Sci 1982,22:118–20Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jeeves WP, Wilson BC, Firnau G, Brown K. Studies of HPD and radiolabelled HPD in vivo and in vitro. In: Kessel D (ed)Methods in porphyrin photosensitization, New York: Plenum, 1986:51–67Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gomer CJ, Dougherty TJ. Determination of3H- and14C-hematoporphyrin derivative distribution in malignant and normal tissue.Cancer Res 1979,39:146–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Berenbaum MC, Bonnett R, Scourides PA. In vivo biological activity of the components of hematoporphyrin derivative.Br J Cancer 1982,45:571–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pimstone NR, Gandhi SN. Optimal photodynamic band of red light on hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) photoradiation. In: Doiron DR, Gomer CJ (eds)Porphyrin photosensitization and treatment of tumors, New York: Liss, 1984:673–8Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Potter WR. The theory of photodynamic dosimetry: consequences of photodestruction of sensitizer.SPIE Lasers Med 1986,712: in pressGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Bailliére Tindall 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brian C. Wilson
    • 1
    • 2
  • Michael S. Patterson
    • 1
    • 2
  • Diane M. Burns
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Medical Physics, Ontario Cancer Treatment and Research FoundationMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  2. 2.Departments of Radiology and PhysicsMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  3. 3.Department of RadiologyMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada

Personalised recommendations