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Research in Engineering Design

, Volume 4, Issue 1, pp 43–50 | Cite as

Design principles for cognitive artifacts

  • Donald A. Norman
Article

Abstract

Modern designs are more than ever before required to be understandable and usable by their intended audience. As machines get ever more complex, it becomes essential for designers to provide a user-centered design that focuses upon the needs and abilities of the user. This paper presents an analysis of cognitive artifacts—devices designed to maintain, display, or operate upon information in order to serve a representational function. An important design consideration is the human action cycle which means that artificial devices must support both execution and evaluation.

Keywords

Human Action Design Principle Action Cycle Design Consideration Important Design 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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References

  1. Draper, S.W. (1986). Display managers as a basis for user-machine interaction. In D.A. Norman and S.W. Draper (Ed.),User centered system design. (pp. 339–352). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  2. Norman, D.A. (1990).The design of everyday things. New York: Doubleday. [Originally published as Norman, D.A. (1988),The psychology of everyday things. New York: Basic Books.]Google Scholar
  3. Norman, D.A. (1991). Cognitive artifacts. In J.M. Carroll (Ed.),Designing interaction: Psychology at the human-computer interface. (pp. 17–38). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Norman, D.A. (in preparation).Things that make us smart. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Donald A. Norman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Cognitive ScienceUniversity of CaliforniaSan Diego, La JollaUSA

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