Research in Engineering Design

, Volume 4, Issue 1, pp 43–50 | Cite as

Design principles for cognitive artifacts

  • Donald A. Norman


Modern designs are more than ever before required to be understandable and usable by their intended audience. As machines get ever more complex, it becomes essential for designers to provide a user-centered design that focuses upon the needs and abilities of the user. This paper presents an analysis of cognitive artifacts—devices designed to maintain, display, or operate upon information in order to serve a representational function. An important design consideration is the human action cycle which means that artificial devices must support both execution and evaluation.


Human Action Design Principle Action Cycle Design Consideration Important Design 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Donald A. Norman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Cognitive ScienceUniversity of CaliforniaSan Diego, La JollaUSA

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