Journal of Chemical Ecology

, Volume 22, Issue 5, pp 885–895

Predator-induced diel vertical migration inDaphnia: Enrichment and preliminary chemical characterization of a kairomone exuded by fish

  • Eric von Elert
  • Carsten J. Loose
Article

Abstract

Planktivorous fish release a cue of an unknown chemical nature into the water that induces diel vertical migration inDaphnia as predator avoidance response. We used a bioassay to obtain information about the chemical nature of the kairomone. We present a method to enrich the cue from holding water of fish by sorbent extraction. The kairomone exuded byLeucaspius delineatus can be characterized as a nonolefinic low-molecular-weight anion of intermediate lipophilicity. The presence of amino groups in the molecule can be excluded, whereas hydroxy groups are essential for activity. Separation by HPLC yielded only one active fraction. The kairomones released byCarassius carassius andRutilus rutilus showed the same chemical characteristics, suggesting that the kairomones from different species of fish, sensed byDaphia, are very similar, if not identical.

Key Words

Behavior chemical communication Cladocera Daphnia diel vertical migration kairomone predator avoidance zooplankton 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bollens, S. M., andFrost, B. W. 1991. Diel vertical migration in zooplankton: Rapid individual response to predators.J. Plankt. Res. 13:1359–1365.Google Scholar
  2. Carpino, L. A., andGrace, Y. H. 1972. The 9-fluorenyl-methoxy-carbonyl amino protecting group.J. Org. Chem. 37:3404–3409.Google Scholar
  3. Dawidowicz, P., andLoose, C. J. 1992. Metabolic costs during predator-induced diel vertical migration ofDaphnia.Limnol. Oceanogr. 37(8):1589–1595.Google Scholar
  4. Dawidowicz, P., Pijanowska, J., andCiechomski, K. 1990. Vertical migration ofChaoborus is induced by the presence of fish.Limnol. Oceanogr. 35:1631–1637.Google Scholar
  5. Dodson, S. I. 1988. The ecological role of chemical stimuli for the zooplankton: Predator-avoidance behavior inDaphnia.Limnol. Oceanogr. 33:1431–1439.Google Scholar
  6. Fagen, R. 1987. Phenotypic plasticity and social environment.Evol. Ecol. 1:263–271.Google Scholar
  7. Gilbert, J. J. 1966. Rotifer ecology and embryological induction.Science 151:1234–1237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Knapp, D. R. 1979. Handbook of Analytical Derivatization Reactions. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  9. Kuhlmann, H. W. 1994. Escape response ofEuplotes octocarinatus to turbellarian predators.Arch. Protistenk. 144(2):163–171.Google Scholar
  10. Kusch, J. 1993. Behavioural and morphological changes in ciliates induced by the predatorAmoeba proteus.Oecologia 96:354–359.Google Scholar
  11. Kusch, J., andHeckmann, K. 1992. Isolation of theLambadion-factor, a morphogenetically active signal, that inducesEuplotes cells to change from their ovoid form into a larger lateral winged morph.Dev. Genet. 13:241–246.Google Scholar
  12. Lampert, W. 1989. The adaptive significance of diel vertical migration of zooplankton.Funct. Ecol. 3:21–27.Google Scholar
  13. Lampert, W. 1991. The dynamics ofDaphnia magna in a shallow lake.Verh. Int. Verein. Limnol. 24:795–798.Google Scholar
  14. Larsson, P., andDodson, S. I. 1993. Chemical communication in planktonic animals.Arch. Hydrobiol. 129(2):129–155.Google Scholar
  15. Loose, C. J. 1993.Daphnia diel vertical migration behavior: response to vertebrate predator abundance.Arch. Hydrobiol. Beih. Ergebn. Limnol. 39:29–36.Google Scholar
  16. Loose, C. J., andDawidowicz, P. 1994. Trade-offs in diel vertical migration by zooplankton: The costs of predator avoidance.Ecology 75(8):2255–2263.Google Scholar
  17. Loose, C. J., von Elert, E., andDawidowicz, P. 1993. Chemically-induced diel vertical migration inDaphnia: A new bioassay for kairomones exuded by fish.Arch. Hydrobiol. 126(3):329–337.Google Scholar
  18. Münster, U., Einiö, P., andOverbeck, J. 1992. Extracellular enzymes in a polyhumic lake: Important regulators in detritus processing.Hydrobiologia 229:225–238.Google Scholar
  19. Neill, W. E. 1990. Induced vertical migration in copepods as a defense against invertebrate predation.Nature 345:524–526.Google Scholar
  20. Parejko, K., andDodson, S. I. 1990. Progress towards characterization of a predator/prey kairomone:Daphnia pulex andChaoborus americanus.Hydrobiologia 198:51–59.Google Scholar
  21. Pijanowska, J. 1993. Diel vertical migration in zooplankton: fixed or inducible behavior?Arch. Hydrobiol. Beih. Ergebn. Limnol. 39:89–97.Google Scholar
  22. Ringelberg, J. 1991. Enhancement of the phototactic reaction inDaphnia hyalina by a chemical mediated by juvenile perch (Perca fluviatilis).J. Plankt. Res. 13:17–25.Google Scholar
  23. Ringelberg, J., Flik, B. J. G., Lindenaar, D., andRoyackers, K. 1991. Diel vertical migration ofDaphnia hyalina (sensu latiori) in Lake Maarsseveen: Part 1. Aspects of seasonal and daily timing.Arch. Hydrobiol. 121:129–145.Google Scholar
  24. Tollrian, R. 1993. Neckteeth formation inDaphnia pulex as an example of continuous phenotypic plasticity: Morphological effects ofChaoborus kairomone concentration and their quantification.J. Plankton Res. 15:1309–1318.Google Scholar
  25. Tollrian, R., andvon Elert, E. 1994. Enrichment and purification ofChaoborus kariomone from water: Further steps towards its chemical characterization.Limnol. Oceanogr. 39(4):788–796.Google Scholar
  26. Watts, R. B., andKekwick, R. G. O. 1974. Analysis of straight-chain terpene alcohols by gas chromatography.J. Chromatogr. 88:15–24.Google Scholar
  27. Zaret, T. M., andSuffern, J. S. 1976. Vertical migration in zooplankton as a predator avoidance mechanism.Limnol. Oceanogr. 21:804–813.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eric von Elert
    • 1
  • Carsten J. Loose
    • 2
  1. 1.Max Planck Institute for LimnologyPlönGermany
  2. 2.Alfred-Wegener Institut for Polar- und MeeresforschungBremerhavenGermany

Personalised recommendations