Clinical manifestations of trisomy 4p syndrome
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Trisomy 4p syndrome is a distinct clinical entity which was noted almost a quarter century ago by Wilson et al.  and later was delineated by Gonzalez and colleagues . The variation in the length of duplicated segment usually associated with monosomy of other genetic material which has resulted in confusion and as a result a socalled 4p syndrome could not be recognized without cytogenetic analysis. We wish to draw the attention of clinicians to this subject by presenting the description of over 75 cases including one from our clinic and stress the point that molecular approaches are imperative to characterize this anomaly. After extensive review, it appears that patients retaining at least the distal two-thirds to the entire short arm share an overlapping phenotypic expression that constitutes pure trisomy 4p syndrome which includes prominent glabella, bulbous nose with flat or depressed nasal bridge, retrognathia, pointed chin, short neck with low hairline, enlarged ears with abnormal helix and antihelix, rocker-bottom feet with prominent heel, Arachnodactyly and camptodactyly. Molecular characterization of 4p is imperative. We have also included an extensive bibliography for clinicians who may find it useful as a single reference source for evaluating their future cases.
The 4p-syndrome is a distinct entity but without cytogenetic evaluation, the syndrome can not be recognized.
Key wordsTrisomy 4p syndrome Chromosome 4 FISH-technique
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