Pharmaceutisch Weekblad

, Volume 13, Issue 6, pp 238–243 | Cite as

Oxytocics for the prevention of post-partum haemorrhages

A review
  • P. W. J. Van Dongen
  • J. Van Roosmalen
  • C. N. De Boer
  • J. Van Rooij
Reviews

Abstract

Secale alkaloids, oxytocin and prostaglandins are used to prevent post-partum haemorrhage (post-partum haemorrhage defined as blood loss ⩾ 500 ml). Any oxytocic drug administered in the third stage of labour reduces the blood loss with approximately 40% and hence the incidence of post-partum haemorrhage from 10 to 6%. Therefore, routine active management of the third stage with an oxytocic drug is strongly advocated. Because of the fewest side-effects oxytocin is regarded as the best drug available at this moment.

Keywords

Drug stability Ergometrine Hemorrhage, postpartum/prevention and control Oxytocin Prostaglandins Risk factors Side effects 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Gilbert L, Porter W, Brown VA. Postpartum haemorrhage — a continuing problem. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1987;94:67–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Duthie SJ, Ven D, Yung GLK, Guang DZ, Chan SYW, Ma HK. Discrepancy between laboratory determination and visual estimation of blood loss during normal delivery. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1990;38:119–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Royston E, Armstrong S. Preventing maternal deaths. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1989.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Greenwood AM, Greenwood BM, Bradley AK. A prospective survey of the outcome of pregnancy in a rural area of the Gambia. Bull WHO 1987;65:635–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Murru M. Hospital maternal mortality in Tanzania [dissertation]. London: Univ of London, 1987.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Price TG. Preliminary report on maternal deaths in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania in 1983. J Obst Gynaecol East Centr Afr 1984;3:103–10.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Van Roosmalen J. Maternal health care in the South Western Highlands of Tanzania [dissertation]. Leiden: Leiden Univ, 1988.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bennebroek-Gravenhorst J, Van Dongen PWJ, Dekker GA, Van Geyn HP. Moedersterfte 1983 tot en met 1987 [Report on maternal deaths in the Netherlands 1983–1988]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1989;133:2054.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Prendiville WJ, Harding JE, Elbourne DR, Stirrat GM. The Bristol third stage trial: active versus physiological management of third stage of labour. Br Med J 1988;297:1295–300.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Garcia J, Garforth S, Ayers S. The policy and practice of midwifery study: introduction and methods. Midwifery 1987;3:2–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Prendiville WJ, Elbourne DR, Chalmers I. The effects of routine oxytocic administration in the management of the third stage of labour: an overview of the evidence from controlled trials. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1988;95:3–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Elbourne DR, Prendiville WJ, Chalmers I. Choice of oxytocic preparation for routine use in the management of the third stage of labour: an overview of the evidence from controlled trials. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1988;95:17–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ingelfinger JA, Mosteller F, Thibodeau LA, Ware JH. Biostatistics in medicine. New York: MacMillan Publishing Company, 1983.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Poeschmann RP, Doesburg WH, Eskes TKAB. A randomized comparison of oxytocin, sulprostone and placebo in the management of the third stage of labour. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1991;98:528–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Enkin M, Keirse JNC, Chalmers I. In: Enkin E, ed. A guide to effective care in pregnancy and childbirth. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hall MH, Halliwell R, Carr-Hill R. Concomitant and repeated happenings of complications of the third stage of labour. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1985;92:732–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Walker GJA, Hogerzeil HV, Lindgren U. Potency of ergometrine in tropical countries. Lancet 1988;2:393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bos CE. Tropical tablets. The development of tablet formulations for use in tropical countries [dissertation]. Groningen: Univ of Groningen, 1990.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bullough CHW, Msuku RS, Karonde L. Early suckling and post partum haemorrhage: a controlled trial in deliveries attended by traditional birth attendants. Lancet 1989;2:522–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bargman GJ, Gardner LI. Ignis Sacer. Lancet 1969;2:107–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Moir JC. Ergot: from “St. Anthony's Fire” to the isolation of its active principle, ergometrine (Ergonovine). Am J Obstet Gynecol 1974;120:291–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dixon LS. Bosch's “St. Anthony Triptych” — an apothecary's apotheosis. Art J 1984;1:119–31.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dudley HW, Moir C. The substance responsible for the traditional clinical effect of ergot. Br Med J 1935;1:520–3.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Anonymous. Ergot alkaloids and derivatives. In: Reynolds JF, ed. Martindale. The extra pharmacopoeia. 29th ed. London: The Pharmaceutical Press, 1989:1051–9.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Longland PW, Rowbotham PC. Stability at room temperature of medicines normally recommended for cold storage. Pharm J 1987;238:147–50.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Moir C, Dale HH. The action of ergot preparations on the puerperal uterus. Br Med J 1932;1:1119–22.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Adair FL, Davis E, Kharasch MS, Legault RR. A study of a new and potent ergot derivative, ergotocin. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1935;30:466–80.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Davis ME, Adair FL, Rogers G, Kharasch MS, Legault RR. A new active principle in ergot and its effects on uterine motility. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1935;29:155–67.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kamm OH, Aldrich TB, Grottee IW, Rowe LW, Bugbee EP. The active principles of the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. J Am Chem Soc 1928;50:573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Du Vigneaud V, Ressler C, Swan JM, Roberts CW, Katsoyannis PG, Gordon S. The synthesis of an octapeptide amide with the hormonal activity of oxytocin: enzymatic cleavage of glycinamide from vasopressin and a proposed structure for this pressure-antidiuretic hormone of the posterior pituitary. J Am Chem Soc 1953;75:4879.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Brindley BA, Sokol RJ. Induction and augmentation: basis and methods for current practice. Obstet Gynecol Survey 1988;43:730–43.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kurzuk R, Lieb CC. Biochemical studies of human semen. II. Action of semen on the human uterus. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1930;28:268.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Karim SMM, Amy JJ. Prostaglandins and human reproduction. In:MacDonald RR, ed. Scientific basis of obstetrics and gynaecology. Edinburgh: Churchill-Livingstone, 1978:345–92.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Keirse MJNC, Lobatto R. Synthetische prostaglandine analoga voor het inleiden van de baring bij intrauteriene vruchtdood [Prostaglandin analogues for the induction of labour after intrauterine fetal death]. Tijdschrift Geneesmiddelenonderzoek 1983;8:1561–6.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Keirse MJNC. Therapeutische benadering van intrauteriene vruchtdood [Therapeutic approach of intrauterine foetal death]. Tijdschr Geneeskd 1983;39:109–22.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hess HJ, Schaaf TK, Bindra JS, Johnson MR, Constantine JW. Structure-activity considerations leading to sulprostone. In: Friebel K, Schneider A, Wurfel H, eds. International Sulprostone Symposium. Berlin: Schering, 1979:29–37.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Pulkkinen MO. Uterine activity and blood flow in response to sulprostone during midtrimester pregnancy termination. Arch Gynecol 1981;231:57–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Schenk G. Anwendung von Sulproston in der Nachgeburtsperiode. In: Hepp H, Schüssler B, eds. Prostaglandine in GynÄkologie und Geburtshilfe. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1981:141–3.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Baumgarten K, Schmidt J, Horvat A, Neumann M, Cerwenka R, Gruber W, et al. Uterine motility after post-partum application of sulprostone and other oxytocics. Eur J Obstet Gynaecol Reprod Biol 1983;16:181–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Royal Dutch Association for Advancement of Pharmacy 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. W. J. Van Dongen
    • 1
  • J. Van Roosmalen
    • 2
  • C. N. De Boer
    • 3
  • J. Van Rooij
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics and GynaecologyUniversity Hospital NijmegenHB Nijmegenthe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Obstetrics and GynaecologyUniversity Hospital LeidenRC Leidenthe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of Obstetrics and GynaecologyCatharina Hospital EindhovenEJ Eindhoventhe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations