Die Kulturpflanze

, Volume 29, Issue 1, pp 177–198

Species concepts and systematics of domesticated cereals

  • Johannes M. J. De Wet
Section II: Problems of the Taxonomy of Cultivated Plants

Summary

Cultivated cereals are domesticated grasses. Wild progenitors of domestic cereals are aggressive natural colonizers and often become weedy in man disturbed habitats. Hybridization between cultivated cereals and their close wild relatives gives rise to mimetic cereal weeds that often accompany the domestic species well beyond its natural range. Similar weeds may also evolve from abandoned cultivars as a result of mutations that restore their ability for natural seed dispersal. Cultivated complexes of domestic species are typically variable. Man selects and isolates phenotypes to suit his fancies, with the result that different phenotypes of a cereal are often grown for different uses in the same village, and adjacent villages often grow different phenotypes for similar uses. Conventional species concepts do not hold for domestic species. It is proposed that wild, weed and cultivated complexes of individual domestic species be recognized respectively as subspecies. Major discontinuities in variation within the weed or cultivated subspecies are then identified as races without formal taxonomic recognition.

Artbegriff und Systematik bei domestizierten Getreiden

Zusammenfassung

Kultivierte Getreide sind domestizierte Gräser. Die wilden Vorfahren der domestizierten Getreide sind aggressive natürliche Besiedler und werden oft zu Unkräutern in vom Menschen beeinflußten Standorten. Bastardierung zwischen kultivierten Getreiden und ihren wilden Verwandten läßt mimetische Getreideunkräuter entstehen, die oft die domestizierten Arten außerhalb ihres natürlichen Verbreitungsgebietes begleiten. Ähnliche Unkräuter können sich auch aus aufgegebenen Sorten entwickeln als ein Ergebnis von Mutationen, die ihre Fähigkeit zur natürlichen Samenausstreuung wiederherstellen. Kultivierte Komplexe domestizierter Arten sind in typischer Weise variabel. Der Mensch selektiert und isoliert Phänotypen nach seinen Vorstellungen mit dem Ergebnis, daß verschiedene Phänotypen eines Getreides oft zu verschiedenen Zwecken im selben Dorf angebaut werden, und benachbarte Dörfer oft verschiedene Phänotypen für ähnliche Zwecke kultivieren. Der herkömmliche Artbegriff bewährt sich nicht bei domestizierten Arten. Es wird vorgeschlagen, daß Wild-, Unkraut- und Kulturformen einer domestizierten Art als entsprechende Unterarten angesehen werden. Größere Gruppen innerhalb der Unkraut- oder Kultur-Unterart sollten als Rassen ohne formale taxonomische Bezeichnung gehandhabt werden.

Концепция вида и сист ематика одомашненны х хлебных злаков

Краткое содержание

Возделываемые хлебн ые растения это — одом ашненные злаки. Дикорастущие предки одомашненных злаков являются есте ственными агрессивными “колонизаторами” и ч асто становятся сорн яками в местообитаниях, подв ерженных влиянию человека. Пут ëм гибридизации куль турных злаков и их дикорастущих сор одичей возникают мим етические формы сорняков, часто сопровождающи е культурные виды и вн е их естественных ареало в. Подобные же сорняки м огут возникнуть и из с ортов, которые больше не возделываются, в резу льтате мутаций, восстанавливающих и х способность к естественному своб одному осыпанию семя н. Культивируемые комп лексы одомашненных видов п роявляют типичную дл я них изменчивость. Челове к селекционирует и изо лирует фенотипы по св оим потребностям, в резул ьтате чего различные фенот ипы одного зерноврго злака часто возделываются для различных целей в одном и том же селе, а со седние сëла часто культивир уют различные фенотипы д ля сходного использо вания. Общепринятое понятие вида оказыва ется неподходящим дл я одомашненных видов. П редлагается рассматривать дикор астущие, сорняковые и культурные формы одного вида как соотв етствующие подвиды. Значительные группы, выделяемые внутри сорного или ку льтурного подвида сл едует рассматривать как расы, не давая им форма льного таксономичес кого обозначения.

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Copyright information

© Akademie-Verlag 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Johannes M. J. De Wet
    • 1
  1. 1.Crop Evolution Laboratory, Department of AgronomyUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignUrbanaUSA

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