European Journal of Pediatrics

, Volume 149, Issue 6, pp 434–437 | Cite as

Micturition habits and incontinence in 7-year-old Swedish school entrants

  • A. -L. Hellström
  • E. Hanson
  • S. Hansson
  • K. Hjälmås
  • U. Jodal


The prevalence of incontinence in children has been extensively studied, but knowledge of other bladder symptoms is lacking in a healthy child population. The micturition habits of 3556 7-year-old school entrants were surveyed by a questionnaire supplemented by telephone interviews. One or more symptoms of a disturbed bladder function was reported in 26%, but most of these had moderate urgency as a sign of incomplete voluntary bladder control. Isolated bedwetting occurred in 2.8% of the girls and 7.0% of the boys, whereas nocturnal incontinence combined with daytime wetting was equally common in both sexes, 2.3% and 2.0% respectively. Diurnal incontinence was reported in 6.0% of the girls and 3.8% of the boys and was usually combined with other symptoms. The frequency of micturition in children without symptoms of bladder disturbance and with no previous urinary tract infection was 3–7 times per day.

Key words

Child Bladder Urinary incontinence 



urinary tract infection


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. -L. Hellström
    • 1
  • E. Hanson
    • 1
  • S. Hansson
    • 2
  • K. Hjälmås
    • 1
  • U. Jodal
    • 2
  1. 1.Departments of Paediatric SurgeryUniversity of GothenburgGöteborgSweden
  2. 2.Departments of Paediatrics, East HospitalUniversity of GothenburgGöteborgSweden

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