Experientia

, Volume 45, Issue 7, pp 605–611

Classification and distribution ofFicus

  • C. C. Berg
Reviews

Summary

The classification of the genusFicus has changed considerably in the course of time and is still the subject of further research and discussion. The main subdivisions in the most recent classification by Corner12 are presented together with the genera of pollinating fig wasps (Agaonidae) associated with them. These subdivisions are discussed and grouped according to morphological and functional traits, in particular in connection with the unique pollination system. Two main groups are recognized: one with only monoecious species and the other with predominantly (gyno)dioecious species. The former comprises two subgroups (Pharmacosycea andUrostigma) and the latter three, more profoundly different subgroups (Ficus, Sycidium andSycomorus). The neotropical representatives of the genus are discussed in somewhat more detail. In addition, the distribution of the genus is summarized for the three main regions of distribution; Africa, America, and Asia-Australasia. Finally the concordance between subdivisions ofFicus and those of the Agaonidae is briefly discussed.

Key words

Ficus subdivisions distribution 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Berg, C. C., TheFicus species (Moraceae) of Madagascar and the Comoro Islands. Bull. Mus. natn. Hist. nat., Paris, Sér. 4, 8 (Sect. B, Adansonia, No. 1) (1986) 17–55.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Berg, C. C., Subdivision ofFicus subg.Urostigma sect.Galoglychia (Moraceae). Proc. K. ned. Akad. Wet. A, Ser. C,89 (1986) 121–127.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Berg, C. C., Moraceae, in: Flora of the Guianas. Ser. A. Ed. A. R. A. Görts-van Rijn. Koenigstein 1989, in press.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Berg, C. C., Annotated check-list of theFicus species of the African flora region, with special reference and a key to the taxa of Southern Africa. Kirkia (1989) in press.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Berg, C. C., and van Heusden, N., Moraceae. Flora Trin. Tobago2 (9) (1982) 722–749.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Berg, C. C., and Hijman, M. E. E., Moraceae, in: Flora of Tropical east Africa. Ed. R. M. Polhill. Dordrecht 1989, in press.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Berg, C. C., Hijman, M. E. E., and van Weerdenburg, J. C. A., Flore du Gabon 26. Moracées, Paris 1984.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Berg, C. C., Hijman, M. E. E., and van Weerdenburg, J. C. A., Flore du Cameroun 28. Moracées (incl. Cecropiacées) Yaoundé 1985.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Berg, C. C., Vázquez Avila, M., and Kooy, F.,Ficus species of Brazilian Amazonia and the Guinas. Acta amazon.14 (1/2), Suppl. (1986) 159–194.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Burger, W. C., Flora costaricensis: Moraceae. Ficldiana Bot.40 (1977) 94–215.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Corner, E. J. H., An introduction in the distribution ofFicus. Reinwardtia4 (1958) 15–45.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Corner, E. J. H., Check-list ofFicus in Asia and Australasia with keys to identification. Gdns' Bull. Singapore21 (1965) 1–186.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Corner, E. J. H.,Ficus in the Solomon Islands and its bearing on the Post-Jurassic history of Melanesia. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, Ser. B,253 (1967) 23–159.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Corner, E. J. H.,Ficus subg.Pharmacosycea with reference to species of New Caledonia. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, Ser. B,259 (1970) 383–433.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Corner, E. J. H., New species ofStreblus andFicus (Moraceae). Blumea18 (1970) 393–411.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Corner, E. J. H.,Ficus (Moraceae) andHymenoptera (Chalcidoidea): Figs and their pollinators. Biol. J. Linn. Soc.25 (1985) 185–195.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    DeWolf, G. P.,Ficus (in Moraceae), in: R. E. Woodson and R. W. Schery, Flora of Panama. Ann. Mo. bot. Gdn.47 (1960) 146–165.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    DeWolf, G. P.,Ficus (in Moraceae) in: J. Lanjouw and A. L. Stoffers, Flora of Suriname5 (1) (1975) 218–265, 297–299.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Galil, J., topocentric and ethodynamic pollination, in: Pollination and Dispersal, pp. 85–110. Eds N. B. M. Brantjes and H. F. Linskens. Nijmegen 1973.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Galil, J., and Eisikowitch, D., On the pollination ecology ofFicus sycomorus. Ecology49 (1968) 259–269.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Galil, J., and Eisikowitch, D., Further studies on pollination ecology ofFicus sycomorus. II. Pocket filling and emptying byCeratosolen arabicus. New Phytol.73 (1974) 515–528.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gasparrini, G., Nova genera supra Fici species. Naples 1844.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gasparrini, G., Ricerche sulla natura del Caprifico et del Fico. Naples 1845.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Michaloud, G., Michaloud-Pelletier, S., Wiebes, J. T., and Berg, C. C., The co-occurrence of two pollinating species of fig wasp and one species of fig. Proc. K. ned. Akad. Wet., Ser. C,88 (1) (1985) 93–119.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Miquel, F. A. W., Artocarpeae. Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat.3 (7) (1867) 210–214,3 (8) (1867) 225–235.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Miquel, F. A. W. Annotationes de Ficus speciebus. Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat.3 (9) (1867) 260–288;3 (9) (1867) 289–300.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ramirez B., W., Fig wasps: mechanism of pollen transfer. Science163 (1969) 580–581.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ramirez B., W., Taxonomic and biological studies on Neotropical fig wasps. Univ. Kansas Science Bull.49 (1970) 1–44.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ramirez B., W., Coevolution ofFicus and Agaonidae. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gdn.61 (1974) 770–780.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Steenis, C. G. G. J. van, Rheophytes of the World. Alphen aan de Rijn. Rockville 1981.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ulenberg, S. A., The systematics of the fig wasp parasites of the genus Apocrypta Coquerel. Verh. K. ned. Akad. Wet., Afd. Natuurk., Ser.2, 83 (1985).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Valdeyron, G., and Lloyd, D. G., Sex differences and flowering phenology in the common fig,Ficus carica L. Evolution33 (2) (1979) 673–685.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Vázquez Avila, M., El generoFicus (Moraceae) en la República Argentina. Darwiniana23 (2–4) (1981) 605–636.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Vázquez Avila, M., Berg, C. C., and Kooy, F., New taxa of South AmericanFicus. Acta amazon.14 (1/2) Suppl. (1986) 195–213.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Verkerke, W., Anatomy ofFicus ottoniifolia (Moraceae) syconia and its role in the fig-fig wasp symbiosis. Proc. K. ned. Akad. Wet., Ser. C,89 (4) (1986) 443–469.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Verkerke, W., Syconial anatomy ofFicus asperifolia (Moraceae), a gynodioecious tropical fig. Proc. K. ned. Akad. Wet., Ser. C.90 (4) (1987) 461–492.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Verkerke, W., Sycone morphology and its influence on the flower structure ofFicus sur (Moraceae). Proc. K. ned. Akad. Wet., Ser. C,91 (3) (1988) 319–344.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wiebes, J. T. Taxonomy and host preference of Indo-Australian, fig wasps of the genusCeratosolen (Agaonidae). Tijdschr. Ent.106 (1) (1963) 1–112.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wiebes, J. T., The phylogeny of the Agaonidae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea). Netherl. J. Zool.32 (1982) 395–411.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wiebes, J. T., Coevolution as a test of the phylogenetic tree, in: Systematics and Evolution: a Matter of Diversity, pp. 309–314. Ed. P. Hovenkamp. Utrecht 1987.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag Basel 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. C. Berg
    • 1
  1. 1.Arboretum and Botanical Garden (ARBOHA)University of BergenStore Milde(Norway)

Personalised recommendations