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Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology

, Volume 96, Issue 4, pp 187–198 | Cite as

Fusarium head blight and mycotoxin contamination of wheat, a review

  • C. H. A. Snijders
Article

Summary

An infection of bread wheat by fusarium head blight contaminates the crop with mycotoxins, particularly deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV). The toxicity and natural occurrence of these mycotoxins in wheat are reviewed. Based on 8 years data of fusarium head blight epidemics of wheat in the Netherlands, DON contamination of the grain was estimated. Fusarium head blight ratings averaged an infection of 1.7% of all spikelets; estimates for DON contamination averaged 0.9 mg kg−1. Taking a guideline level for DON in uncleaned bread wheat of 2 mg kg−1, in 1979 and 1982 a wheat crop was produced with estimated DON concentrations above the limit of tolerance. Human and animal exposure to mycotoxins in the Netherlands appears to be small but chronic. The information presented in this paper illustrates the need for an annual evaluation of the crop for fusarium head blight incidence and mycotoxin content, and the necessity of fusarium head blight resistant wheat cultivars.

Samenvatting

Aaraantasting van tarwe doorFusarium culmorum enFusarium graminearum leidt tot vorming van mycotoxinen in het graan, waarvan deoxynivalenol (DON) en nivalenol (NIV) de belangrijkste toxinen zijn. In dit artikel wordt een overzicht gegeven van de toxicologische aspecten, en het voorkomen van deze toxinen in tarwe. Informatie over DON en NIV in tarwe in West-Europa is schaars. Gebaseerd op gegevens vanFusarium epidemieën in de jaren 1979–1986 wordt een schatting gegeven van de concentratie DON in Nederlandse tarwe. Rekening houdend met de herkomst en verwerking van tarwe, blijken zowel in dierlijk als menselijk voedsel lage concentraties DON chronisch voor te komen. Op basis van een maximaal toelaatbare dagelijkse dosis DON van 3 μg kg−1 lichaamsgewicht is de schatting van de dagelijkse opname van DON in het jaar volgend op de oogst van 1982 net op de grens. Zowel een jaarlijkse inventarisatie vanFusarium aantasting en DON besmetting van het graan, als de ontwikkeling vanFusarium-resistente rassen zijn noodzakelijk.

Additional keywords

fusarium head blight Fusarium culmorum F. graminearum wheat mycotoxin deoxynivalenol nivalenol 

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Copyright information

© Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. H. A. Snijders
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Plant Breeding Research(CPO)Wageningenthe Netherlands

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