Immunomodulatory effects of Panax Ginseng C.A. Meyer in the mouse
- 203 Downloads
An aqueous extract of Panax Ginseng C.A. Meyer (G.S.) was prepared by boiling crushed G.S. roots in water. The extract obtained was adjusted to 125 mg G.S. per ml and was administered orally to mice for 5 to 6 days at the daily dose of 10, 50 and 250 mg G.S. per kg or was added to cultures of mouse spleen cells at concentrations varying between 0.25 and 8 mg G.S. per ml. The average total ginsenoside content of the G.S. roots used was determined by HPLC analysis and found to be 0.58%(w/w).
Treated mice responded with enhanced antibody formation to either a primary or a secondary challenge with sheep red cells. The effects were dose-dependent. At the highest dose regimen, the primary IgM response was increased by 50% and the secondary IgG and IgM responses were increased by 50 and 100%, respectively. An even more pronounced effect was obtained with natural killer cell activity which was enhanced between 44 and 150% depending on the effector-to-target cell ratios used in the assay.
In vitro, G.S. showed two main effects, an inhibition of stimulated and spontaneous lymphocyte proliferation at high, but not cytotoxic concentrations and an enhancement of interferon production particularly in non-stimulated spleen cells.
The immunostimulating effects obtainedin vivo are in agreement with the stimulation of interferon production observedin vitro. The inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation, however, cannot be reconciled with the immunostimulatory action of G.S. observedin vivo.
KeywordsSpleen Cell Ginsenoside Lymphocyte Proliferation Natural Killer Cell Activity Panax Ginseng
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- C.P. Li andR.C. Li,An introductory note to Ginseng, Am. J. Chinese Med.1, 249–261 (1973).Google Scholar
- I.I. Brekhman andI.V. Dardymov,New substances of plant origin which increase nonspecific resistance, A. Rev. Pharmac.9, 419–430 (1969).Google Scholar
- R.T. Owen,Ginseng: a pharmacological profile, Drugs of today8, 343–351 (1981).Google Scholar
- Jiling Institute for Traditional Chinese Medicine and Medicinal Materials, Research Report2, 6 (1979).Google Scholar
- Li Xing Chung, Annual report of Chang Chun Medical College for Traditional Chinese Medicine (1979).Google Scholar
- S. Gupta, S.S. Agarwal, L.B. Epstein, G. Fernandes andR.A. Good,Panax: A new mitogen and interferon inducer, Clin. Res.28, 504A (1980).Google Scholar
- H.R. Schulten andF. Soldati,Identification of ginsenosides from panax ginseng in fractions obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography by field desorption mass spectrometry, multiple internal deflection infrared spectroscopy and thin-layer chromatography, J. Chromat.212, 37–49 (1981).Google Scholar
- A.J. Cunningham andA. Szenberg,Further improvements in the plaque technique for detecting single antibody-forming cells, Immunology14, 599 (1968).Google Scholar
- N.R. Jerne, C. Henry, A.A. Nordin, H. Fuji, A.M.C. Koros andI. Lefkovits,Plaque forming cells: methodology and theory, Transplantation Rev.18, 130–191 (1974).Google Scholar
- R.B. Herberman, M.E. Nunn andD.H. Lavrin,Natural cytotoxic reactivity of mouse lymphoid cells against syngeneic and allogeneic tumors. I. Distribution of reactivity and specificity, Int. J. Cancer16, 216 (1975).Google Scholar
- I. Gresser, M.G. Tovey, M.T. Bandu, G. Maury andD. Brouty-Boye,Role of interferon in the pathogenesis of virus diseases in mice as demonstrated by the use of anti-interferon serum. I. Rapid evolution of encephalomyocarditis virus infection, J. exp. Med.144, 1305 (1976).Google Scholar
- K.T. Brunner, H.D. Engers andI.C. Cerottini, The51Cr release assay as used for the quantitative measurement of cell mediated cytolysisin vitro. In.In Vitro Methods in Cell-Mediated and Tumor Immunity, pp. 425, (Eds.B.R. Bloom andJ.R. David). Academic Press, New York 1976.Google Scholar
- J.Y. Djeu, J.A. Heinbaugh, H.T. Holden andR.B. Herberman,Augmentation of mouse natural killer activity by interferon and interferon inducers, J. Immun.122, 175–181 (1979).Google Scholar