Transgenic Research

, Volume 5, Issue 3, pp 147–166 | Cite as

Regulation and expression of transgenes in fish—a review

  • Arati Iyengar
  • Ferenc Müller
  • Norman Maclean


Transgenic fish, owing to a number of advantages which they offer over other species, are proving to be valuable model systems for the study of gene regulation and developmental genetics in addition to being useful targets for the genetic manipulation of commercially important traits. Despite having begun only a decade ago, the production of transgenic fish has become commonplace in a number of laboratories world-wide and considerable progress has been made. In this review, we initially consider the various regulatory elements and coding genes which have been used in fish, and subsequently discuss and compare both the transient and long-term fate and expression patterns of injected DNA sequences in the context of the different factors which are likely to have an effect on the expression of transgenes.


transgenic fish transient expression transgene expression reporter genes fate of DNA teleostei 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alam, J. and Cook, J.L. (1990) Reporter genes: application to the study of mammalian gene transcription.Anal. Biochem. 188, 245–54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Alam, M.S., Popplewell, A. and Maclean, N. (1995) Germ line transmission and expression of alacZ containing transgene in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).Transgenic Res. (in press).Google Scholar
  3. Aleström, P., Klungland, H., Kisen, G. and Anderson, O. (1991) Fish GnRH gene and molecular approaches for control of sexual maturation. Abstract S75. p65 in Program and abstracts, IMBC, 13–16 October, 1991; Baltimore, USA.Google Scholar
  4. Aleström, P., Kisen, G., Klungland, H. and Anderson, O. (1992) Fish gonadotropin-releasing hormone gene and molecular approaches for control of sexual maturation: development of a transgenic fish model.Mol. Mar. Biol. Biotechnol. 1, 376–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Allen, N.D., Cran, D.G., Barton, S., Hettle, S., Reik, W. and Surani, M.A. (1988) Transgenes as probes for active chromosomal domains in mouse development.Nature 333, 852–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Amsterdam, A., Lin, S. and Hopkins, N. (1995) TheAequorea victoria green fluorescent protein can be used as a reporter in live zebrafish embryos.Dev. Biol. 171, 123–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Andéol, Y. (1994) Early transciption in different animal species: implication for transition from maternal to zygotic control in development.Roux's Arch. Dev. Biol. 204, 3–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Aronow, B.J., Ebert, C.A., Valerius, M.T., Potter, S.S., Wiginton, D.A., Witte, D.P. and Hutton, J.J. (1995) Dissecting a locus control region: facilitation of enhancer function by extended enhancer-flanking sequences.Mol. Cell. Biol. 15, 1123–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Asano, M. and Shiokawa, K. (1993) Behaviour of exogenouslyintroduced DNAs in early embryos ofXenopus laevis.Zool. Sci. 10, 197–222.Google Scholar
  10. Bartke, A., Naar, E.M., Johnson, L., May, M.R., Cecim, M., Yun, J.S. and Wagner, T.E. (1992) Effects of expression of human or bovine growth hormone genes on sperm production and male reproductive performance in four lines of transgenic mice.J. Reprod. Fert. 95, 109–18.Google Scholar
  11. Bayer, T.A. and Campos-Ortega, J.A. (1992) A transgene containinglacZ is expressed in primary sensory neurons in zebrafish.Development 115, 421–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bearzotti, M., Perrot, E., Michard-Vanhee, C., Jolivet, G., Attal, J., Theron, M.C., Puissant, C., Dreano, M., Kopchik, J.J., Powell, R., Gannon, F., Houdebine, L.M. and Chourrout, D. (1992) Gene expression following transfection of fish cells.J. Biotechnol. 26, 315–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Beelman, C.A. and Parker, R. (1995) Degradation of mRNA in eukaryotes.Cell 81, 179–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Beerman, F., Ruppert, S., Hummler, E., Hummler, F.X., Muller, G., Ruther, U. and Schutz, G. (1990) Rescue of the albino phenotype by introduction of a functional tyrosinase gene into mice.EMBO J. 9, 2819–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bétancourt, O.H., Attal, J., Théron, M.C., Puissant, C. and Houdebine, L.M. (1993) Efficiency of introns from various orgins in fish cells.Mol. Mar. Biol. Biotechnol. 2, 181–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bird, A.P. (1992) The essentials of DNA methylation.Cell 70, 5–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bishop, J.O. and Smith, P. (1989) Mechanism of chromosomal integration of microinjected DNA.Mol. Biol. Med. 6, 283–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bond, C.T., Francis, R.C., Fernald, R.D. and Adelman, J.P. (1991) Characterisation of complementary DNA encoding the precursor for gonadotropin-releasing hormone and its associated peptide from a teleost fish.Mol. Endocrinol. 5, 931–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Braell, W.A. (1991) β-galactosidase assay using the TKO 100 minifluorometer. Hoefer Scientific Instruments. Technical Bulletin #129.Google Scholar
  20. Bruggemann, E.P. (1993) Environmental safety issues for genetically modified animals.J. Anim. Sci. 71, 47–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Cadoret, J.P., Boulo, V., Gendreau, S., Delecheneau, J.M., Rousseau, C. and Mialhe, E. (1994) Genetic manipulation of farmed marine invertebrates: first steps.Abstract P53. p. 122 in Program and abstractsIMBC, August 7–12, 1994, Tromso, Norway.Google Scholar
  22. Caldovic, L. and Hackett, P.B. (1995) Development of position-independent expression vectors and their transfer into transgenic fish.Mol. Mar. Biol. Biotechnol. 4, 51–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Cao, Q.P., Duguay, S.J., Plisetskaya, E.M., Steiner, D.F. and Chan, S.J. (1989) Nucleotide sequence and growth hormone-regulated expression of salmon insulin growth factor I mRNA.Mol. Endocrinol. 3, 2005–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Cavari, B., Hong, Y., Funkenstein, B., Moav, B. and Schartl, M. (1993) All-fish gene constructs for growth hormone gene transfer in fish.Fish Physiol. Biochem. 11, 345–52.Google Scholar
  25. Chalfie, M., Tu, Y., Euskirchen, G., Ward, W.W., and Prasher, D.C. (1994) Green fluorescent protein as a marker for gene expression.Science 263, 802–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Chen, T.T., Kight, K.K., Lin, C.M., Powers, D.A., Hayat, M., Chatakondi, N., Ramboux, A.C., Duncan, P.L. and Dunham, R.A. (1993a) Expression and inheritance of RSVLTR-rtGH1 complementary DNA in transgenic common carp,Cyprinus carpio. Mol. Mar. Biol. Biotechnol. 2, 88–95.Google Scholar
  27. Chen, T.T., Lu, J.K.,Dunham, R.A. and Powers, D.A. (1993b) Transfer of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor genes into carp, catfish and medaka. Abstract S12. p6 in Program and abstracts “Advances in the Molecular Endocrinology of Fish”, May 23–25, 1993, Toronto, Canada.Google Scholar
  28. Chen, T.T. and Powers, D.A. (1990) Transgenic fish.Trends Biotech. 8, 209–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chong, S.S.C. and Vielkind, J.R. (1989) Expression and fate of CAT reporter gene microinjected into fertilised medaka (Oryzias latipes) eggs in the form of plasmid DNA, recombinant phage particles and its DNA.Theor. Appl. Genet. 78, 369–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Clark, A.J., Archibald, A.L., McClenaghan, M., Simons, J.P., Wallace, R. and Whitelaw, C.B.A. (1993) Enhancing the efficiency of transgene expression.Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. 339, 225–32.Google Scholar
  31. Cloud, J.G. (1990) Strategies for introducing foreign DNA into the germ line of fish.J. Reprod. Fert. Suppl. 41, 107–16.Google Scholar
  32. Cloud, J.G. and Kersten, C.A. (1994) Production of interspecific salmon chimeras by transfer of isolated blastomeres into recipient blastulae. Abstract P58. p124 in Program and abstracts IMBC, August 7–12, 1994, Tromso, Norway.Google Scholar
  33. Cui, C., Wani, M.A., Wight, D., Kopchik, J. and Sambrook, P.J. (1994) Reporter genes in transgenic mice.Transgenic Res. 3, 182–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Cui, Z. and Zhu, Z. (1993) Hormonal replacement therapy in fish: human growth hormone gene function in hypophysectomized carp.Fish Physiol. Biochem. 12, 161–9.Google Scholar
  35. Culp, P., Nüsslein-Volhard, C. and Hopkins, N. (1991) Highfrequency germ-line transmission of plasmid DNA sequences injected into fertilised zebrafish eggs.Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 7953–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Curtis, D., Lehmann, R. and Zamore, P.D. (1995) Translational control in development.Cell 81, 171–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Dautigny, A., Prager, E.M., Pham-Dinh, D., Jolles, J., Pakdel, F., Grinde, B. and Jolles, P. (1991) cDNA and amino acid sequences of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) lysozymes and their implications for the evolution of lysozyme and lactalbumin.J. Mol. Evol. 32, 187–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Davies, P.L., Fletcher, G.L. and Hew, C.L. (1989) Fish antifreeze protein genes and their use in transgenic studies. in Maclean, N. (ed).Oxford Surveys on Eukaryotic Genes, vol. 6, pp. 85–109, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Delagrave, S., Hawtin, R.E., Silva, C.M., Yang, M.M. and Youvan, D.C. (1995) Red-shifted excitation mutants of the green fluorescent protein.Bio/Technology 13, 151–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. DeMaio, A. and Buchman, T.G. (1990) Mammalian liver contains an activity which mimics bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase.Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1087, 303–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. DePonti-Zilli, L., Seiler-Tuyns, A. and Paterson, B.M. (1988) A 40-base-pair sequence in the 3′ end of the β-actin gene regulates β-actin mRNA transcription during myogenesis.Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 1389–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Devlin, R.H. and Donaldson, E.M. (1992) Containment of genetically altered fish with emphasis on salmonids in Hew, C.L. and Fletcher, G.L. (eds)Transgenic Fish. pp. 229–265. World Scientific.Google Scholar
  43. Devlin, R.H., Yesaki, T.Y., Biagi, C.A., Donaldson, E.M., Swanson, P. and Chan, W. (1994a) Extraordinary salmon growth.Nature 371, 209–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Devlin, R.H., Izadnegahdar, M., Yesaki, T.Y., Donaldson, E.M. and Shah, R.M. (1994b) Craniofacial consequences in transgenic fish expressing growth hormone.J. Dent. Res. 73, 265.Google Scholar
  45. DeVries, A.L. (1984) Role of glycopeptides and peptides in inhibition of crystallisation of water in polar fishes.Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. B. 304, 375–88.Google Scholar
  46. deWet, J.R., Wood, K.V., deLuca, M., Helinski, D.R. and Subramani, S. (1987) Firefly luciferase gene: structure and expression in mammalian cells.Mol. Cell. Biol. 7, 725–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Doerfler, W. (1992) DNA methylation: eukaryotic defense against the transcription of foreign genes.Microbial Pathogenesis 12, 1–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Doerfler, W. (1993) Patterns ofde novo methylation and promoter inhibition: studies on the adenovirus and the human genomes. in Jost, J.P. and Saluz, H.P. (eds.)DNA methylation: molecular biology and biological significance. pp. 262–299. Birkhäuser Verlag.Google Scholar
  49. Dorer, D.R. and Henikoff, S. (1994) Expansions of transgene repeats cause heterochromatin formation and gene silencing inDrosophila.Cell 77, 993–1002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Driever, W., Stemple, D., Schier, A. and Solnica-Kresel, L. (1994) Zebrafish: genetic tools for studying vertebrate development.Trends Genet. 10, 152–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Du, S.J., Gong, Z., Fletcher, G.L., Shears, M.A., King, M.J., Idler, D.R. and Hew, C.L. (1992) Growth enhancement in transgenic Atlantic salmon by the use of an “all-fish” chimeric growth hormone gene construct.Bio/Technology 10, 176–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Duguay, S.J., Park, L.K., Samadpour, M. and Dickhoff, W.W. (1992) Nucleotide sequence and tissue distribution of three insulin-like growth factor I prohormones in salmon.Mol. Endocrinol. 6, 1202–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Eden, S. and Cedar, H. (1994) Role of DNA methylation in the regulation of transcription.Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 4, 255–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Endean, D. and Smithies, O. (1989) Replication of plasmid DNA in fertilizedXenopus eggs is sensitive to both the topology and size of the injected template.Chromosoma 97, 307–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Etkin, L.D. and Pearman, B. (1987) Distribution, expression and germ-line transmission of exogenous DNA sequences following microinjection inXenopus laevis eggs.Development 99, 15–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Fjalestad, K.T., Gjedrem, T. and Gjerde, B. (1993) Genetic improvement of disease resistance in fish: an overview.Aquaculture 111, 65–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Fletcher, G.L. and Davies, P.L. (1991) Transgenic fish for aquaculture. in Setlow, J.K. (ed)Genetic engineering, Vol. 13, pp. 331–370. New York; USA: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  58. Fletcher, G.L., Davies, P.L. and Hew, C.L. (1992) Genetic engineering of freeze-resistant Atlantic salmon. in Hew, C.L. and Fletcher, G.L. (eds)Transgenic fish, pp. 190–208. World Scientific.Google Scholar
  59. Friedenreich, H. and Schartl, M. (1990) Transient expression directed by homologous and heterologous promoter and enhancer sequences in fish cells.Nucl. Acids Res. 18, 3299–305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Furth, P.A., Onge, L.C., Böger, H., Gruss, P., Gossen, M., Kistner, A., Bujard, H. and Hennighausen, L. (1994) Temporal control of gene expression in transgenic mice by a tetracyclineresponsive promoter.Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 91, 9302–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Gasaryan, K.G., Hung, N.M., Neyfakh, A.A. and Ivanenkov, V.V. (1979) Nuclear transplantation in teleostMisgurnus fossilis L.Nature 280, 585–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Ghosh, C. and Collodi, P. (1994) Culture of cells from zebrafish blastula-stage embryos.Cytotechnology 14, 21–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Gibbs, P.D.L., Peek, A. and Thorgaard, G. (1994a) Anin-vivo screen for the luciferase transgene in zebrafish.Mol. Mar. Biol. Biotechnol. 3, 307–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Gibbs, P.D.L., Gray, A. and Thorgaard, G. (1994b) Inheritance of P element and reporter gene sequences in zebrafish.Mol. Mar. Biol. Biotechnol. 3, 317–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Gong, Z., Hew, C.L. and Vielkind, J.R. (1991) Functional analysis and temporal expression of promoter regions from fish antifreeze protein genes in transgenic Japanese medaka embryos.Mol. Mar. Biol. Biotechnol. 1, 64–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Grinde, B. (1989) Lysozyme from rainbow trout,Salmo gairdneri Richardson, as an antibacterial agent against fish pathogens.J. Fish Diseases 12, 95–104.Google Scholar
  67. Gross, M.L., Schneider, J.F., Moav, N., Moav, B., Alvarez, C., Myster, S.H., Liu, Z., Hallerman, E.M., Hackett, P.B., Guise, K.S., Faras, A.J. and Kapuscinski, A.R. (1992) Molecular analysis and growth evaluation of northern pike (Esox lucius) microinjected with growth hormone genes.Aquaculture 103, 253–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Guise, K.S., Hackett, P.B. and Faras, A.J. (1992) Transfer of genes encoding neomycin resistance, chloramphenicol acetyl transferase and growth hormone into goldfish and northern pike. in Hew, C.L. and Fletcher, G.L. (eds)Transgenic fish. pp. 142–163. World Scientific.Google Scholar
  69. Guven, K., Duce, J.A. and dePomerai, D.I. (1994) Evaluation of a stress-inducible transgenic nematode strain for rapid toxicity testing.Aquatic Toxicology 29, 119–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Guyomard, R., Chourrout, D., Leroux, C., Houdebine, L.M. and Pourrain, F. (1989) Integration and germ line transmission of foreign genes microinjected into fertilised trout eggs.Biochimie 71, 857–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Hackett, P.B. (1993) The molecular biology of transgenic fish. in Hochachka, P.W. and Mommsen, T.M. (eds)Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, Vol. 2. pp. 207–240. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  72. Hallerman, E.M. and Kapuscinski, A.R. (1992) Ecological and regulatory uncertainties associated with transgenic fish. in Hew, C.L. and Fletcher, G.L. (eds).Transgenic Fish. pp. 209–228. World Scientific.Google Scholar
  73. Hamer, D.H. (1986) Metallothionein.Ann. Rev. Biochem. 55, 913–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Hansen, E., Fernandes, K., Goldspink, G., Butterworth, P., Umeda, P.K. and Chang, K.C. (1991) Strong expression of foreign genes following direct injection into fish muscle.FEBS Lett. 290, 73–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Hernández, O., Castro, F.O., Aguilar, A., Uliver, A., Péréz, A., Herrera, L. and de la Fuente, J. (1991) Gene transfer in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) by microinjection into the germinal discTheriogenology 35, 625–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Hong, Y., Winkler, C., Brem, G. and Schartl, M. (1993) Development of a heavy metal-inducible fish-specific expression vector for gene transferin vitro andin vivo.Aquaculture 111, 215–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Hotta, Y., Okamoto, H., Nakao, K., Inoue, A. and Koizumi, K. (1992) A new technique to achieve an ectopic expression of a foreign gene in zebrafish embryos pp. 16–19 inAnnual Report, 1992. National Institute for Basic Biology, Japan.Google Scholar
  78. Houdebine, L.M. and Chourrout, D. (1991) Transgenesis in fish.Experientia 47, 891–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Hsiao, K.C., Cheng, C.H.C., Fernandes, I.E., Detrich, H.W. and DeVries, A.L. (1990) An antifreeze glycopeptide gen from the Antarctic codNotothenia coriiceps neglecta encodes a polyprotein of high copy number.Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 87, 9265–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Husebye, H., Kisen, G., Kavumpurath, S., Andersen, O. and Aleström, P. (1994) Reporter gene expression in zebrafish. Abstract P60. p125 in Program and abstracts, IMBC, August 7–12, 1994, Tromso, Norway.Google Scholar
  81. Ibrahim, H.R., Yamada, M., Matsushita, K., Koboyashi, K. and Kato, A. (1994) Enhanced bactericidal action of lysozyme toEscherichia coli by inserting a hydrophobic pentapeptide into its C terminus.J. Biol. Chem. 269, 5059–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Ihssen, P.E., McKay, L.R., McMillan, I. and Phillips, R.B. (1990) Ploidy manipulation and gynogenesis in fishes: cytogenetic and fisheries applications.Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 119, 698–717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Inoue, K., Ozato, K., Kondoh, H., Iwamatsu, T., Wakamatsu, Y., Fujita, T. and Okada, T.S. (1989) Stage-dependent expression of the chicken δ-crystallin gene in transgenic fish embryos.Cell Differ. Develop. 27, 57–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Inoue, K., Yamashita, S., Akita, N., Mitsuboshi, T., Nagahisa, E., Shiba, T. and Fujita, T. (1990) Electroporation as a new technique for producing transgenic fish.Cell. Differ. Develop. 29, 123–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Inoue, K., Akita, N., Shiba, T., Satake, M. and Yamashita, S. (1992) Metal-inducible activities of metallothionein promoters in fish cells and fry.Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 185, 1108–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Itskovitz-Eldor, J., Levron, J., Arav, A., Bar-Ami, S., Stein, D.W., Fletcher, G.L. and Rubinsky, B. (1993) Hypothermic preservation of human oocytes with antifreeze proteins from subpolar fish.Cryo-Letters 14, 235–42.Google Scholar
  87. Ivics, Z., Izsvák, Z. and Hackett, P.B. (1993) Enhanced incorporation of transgenic DNA into zebrafish chromosomes by a retroviral integration protein.Mol. Mar. Biol. Biotechnol. 2, 162–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Iyengar, A. and Maclean, N. (1995) Transgene concatemerisation and expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).Mol. Mar. Biol. Biotechnol. 4, 248–54.Google Scholar
  89. Izsvák, Z., Ivics, Z. and Hackett, P.B. (1995) Characterisation of aTc-1-like transposable element in zebrafish (Danio rerio).Mol. Gen. Genet 247, 312–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Jankowski, J.M. and Dixon, G.H. (1987) The GC box as a silencer.Bioscience Rep. 7, 955–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Jiang, Y. (1993) Transgenic fish—gene transfer to increase disease and cold resistance.Aquaculture 111, 31–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Kane, D.A. and Kimmel, C.B. (1993) The zebrafish midblastula transition.Development 119, 447–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Kellum, R. and Schedl, P. (1992) A group of scs elements function as domain boundaries in an enhancer-blocking assay.Mol. Cell. Biol. 12, 2424–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Kinoshita, M., Toyohara, H., Sakaguchi, M., Kioka, N., Komano, T., Inoue, K., Yamashita, S., Satake, M., Wakamatsu, Y. and Ozato, K. (1994) Zinc-induced activation of rainbow trout metallothionein-A promoter in transgenic medaka.Fisheries Science 60, 307–9.Google Scholar
  95. Kjer-nielsen, L., Holmberg, K., Perera, J.D. and McCluskey, J.M. (1992) Impaired expression of chimaeric major histocompatibility complex transgenes associated with plasmid sequences.Transgenic Res. 1, 182–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Klungland, H., Andersen, O. and Alestrom, P. (1992) The salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone encoding gene in salmonids.Mol. Marine Biol. Biotechnol. 1, 420–5.Google Scholar
  97. Knibb, W.R. (1994) Genetic improvement of warmwater marine fish and their environmental impact. Abstract. p90 in Program and abstracts, IMBC, August 7–12, Tromso, Norway.Google Scholar
  98. Kollias, G. and Grosveld, F. (1992) The study of gene regulation in transgenic mice. in Grosveld, F. and Kollias, G. (eds).Transgenic animals. pp. 79–98 Academic Press.Google Scholar
  99. Kothary, R.K., Allen, N.D., Barton, S.C., Norris, M.L. and Surani, M.A.H. (1992) Factors affecting cellular mosaicism in the expression of alacZ transgene in two-cell stage mouse embryos.Biochem. Cell Biol. 70, 1097–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Kozlov, A.P., Reshetnikov, V.L., Korzh, V.P. and Neifakh, A.A. (1989) Foreign DNA in the developing loach embryo.Molecular Biol. 22, 1286–93.Google Scholar
  101. Kroll, K.L. and Gerhart, J.C. (1994) TransgenicX. laevis embryos from eggs transplanted with nuclei of transfected cultured cells.Science 266, 650–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Kuspa, A. and Loomis, W.F. (1992) Tagging developmental genes inDictyostelium by restriction enzyme-mediated integration of plasmid DNA.Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 89, 8803–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Leno, G.H. and Laskey, R.A. (1991) The nuclear membrane determines the timing of DNA replication inXenopus egg extracts.J. Cell Biol. 112, 557–66.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Leong, J.C. (1994) Viral vaccines for aquaculture. Abstract. p45 in Program and abstracts, IMBC, August 7–12, Tromso, Norway.Google Scholar
  105. Li, X., Shou, W., Kloc, M., Reddy, B.A. and Etkin,L.D. (1994) Cytoplasmic retention ofXenopus nuclear factor 7 before the mid blastula transition uses a unique anchoring mechanism involving a retention domain and several phosphorylation sites.J. Cell. Biol. 124, 7–17.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Lin, S., Long, W., Chen, J. and Hopkins, N. (1992) Production of germ-line chimeras in zebrafish by cell transplants from genetically pigmented to albino embryos.Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 89, 4519–523.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Lin, S., Yang, S. and Hopkins, N. (1994a)LacZ expression in germline transgenic zebrafish can be detected in living embryos.Dev. Biol. 161, 77–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Lin, S., Gaiano, N., Culp, P., Burns, J.C., Friedman, T., Yee, J.K. and Hopkins, N. (1994b) Integration and germ-line transmission of a pseudotyped retroviral vector in zebrafish.Science 265, 666–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Liu, Z., Moav, B., Faras, A.J., Guise, K.S., Kapuscinski, A.R. and Hackett, P.B. (1990a) Development of expression vectors for transgenic fish,Bio/Technology 8, 1268–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Liu, Z., Moav, B., Faras, A.J., Guise, K.S., Kapuscinski, A.R. and Hackett, P.B. (1990b) Functional analysis of elements affecting expression of the β-actin gene of carp.Mol. Cell. Biol. 10, 3432–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. MacGregor, G.R., Nolan, G.P., Fiering, S., Roederer, M. and Herzenberg, L.A. (1991) Use ofE. coli lacZ (β-galactosidase) as a reporter gene. in Murray, E.J. (ed.).Methods in Molecular Biology, 7. pp. 217–235. Humana Press.Google Scholar
  112. Maclean, N. and Rahman, A. (1994) Transgenic fish. in Maclean, N. (ed.).Animals with novel genes. pp. 63–105 Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  113. Maclean, N., Penman, D. and Zhu, Z. (1987) Introduction of novel genes into fish.Bio/Technology 5, 257–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Maclean, N., Iyengar, A., Rahman, A., Sulaiman, Z. and Penman, D. (1992) Transgene transmission and expression in rainbow trout and tilapia.Mol. Marine Biol. Biotechnol. 1 355–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Maclean, N., Lavender, L., Alam, S., Williams, D. and Popplewell, A. (1995) Effects of region exchange between two vertebrate regulatory sequences drivinglacZ expression in transgenic fish. Abstract A5.9 p12 in Animal and cell Abstracts,The Society for Experimental Biology, 3–7 April, 1995, St. Andrews, UK.Google Scholar
  116. Marini, N.J., Etkin, L.D. and Benbow, R.M. (1988) Persistence and replication of plasmid DNA microinjected into early embryos ofXenopus laevis.Dev. Biol. 127, 421–434.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Martin, C.C. and McGowan, R. (1995) Genotype-specific modifiers of transgene methylation and expression in the zebrafish,Danio rerio. Genet. Res. Camb. 65, 21–8.Google Scholar
  118. Martinez, R., Lleonart, R., Garcia del Barco, D., Hernández, O. and de la Fuente, J. (1994) Expression of different reporter genes in fish embryos: application to promoter activity analysis. Abstract P62. p125 in Program and abstracts, IMBC, August 7–12, Tromso, Norway.Google Scholar
  119. Matsumoto, J., Akiyama, T., Hirose, E., Nakamura, M., Yamamoto, H. and Takeuchi, T. (1992) Expression and transmission of wild-type pigmentation in the skin of transgenic orangecolored variants of medaka (Oryzias latipes) bearing the gene for mouse typrosinase.Pigment Cell Res. 5, 322–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. McEvoy, T., Stack, M., Keane, B., Barry, T., Sreenan, J. and Gannon, F. (1988) The expression of foreign genes in salmon embryos.Aquaculture 68, 27–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. McEvoy, T.G., Gannon, F. and Sreenan, J.M. (1992) Gene transfer in fish: potential and practice.Anim. Biotechnol. 3, 221–43.Google Scholar
  122. McKnight, R.A., Shamay, A., Sankaran, L., Wall, R.J. and Hennighausen, L. (1992) Matrix-attachment regions can impart position-independent regulation of a tissue-specific gene in transgenic mice.Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 6943–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. McLean and Donaldson (1993) The role of somatotropin in growth in poikilotherms. In Martin, P., Scanes, C.G. and Pang, P.K.T. (eds).The endocrinology of growth, development and metabolism in vertebrates. Academic Press.Google Scholar
  124. Mehtali, M., LeMeur, M. and Lathe, R. (1990) The methylation-free status of a housekeeping transgene is lost at high copy number.Gene 91, 179–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Michard-Vanhée, C., Chourrout, D., Strömbert, S., Thuvander, A. and Pilström, L. (1994) Lymphocyte expression in transgenic trout by mouse immunoglobulin promoter/enhancer.Immunogenetics 40, 1–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Moav, B. (1994) Developmental and molecular genetics in fish.Israel J. Zool. 40, 441–66.Google Scholar
  127. Moav, B., Liu, Z., Caldovic, L.D., Gross, M.L., Faras, A.J. and Hackett, P.B. (1993) Regulation of expression of transgenes in developing fish.Transgenic Res. 2, 153–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Müller, F., Ivics, Z., Erdélyi, Papp, T., Váradi, L., Horváth, L., Maclean, N. and Orbán, L. (1992) Introducing foreign genes into fish eggs with electroporated sperm as a carrier.Mol. Mar. Biol. Biotechnol. 1, 276–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Müller, F., Lele, Z., Váradi, L., Menczel, L. and Orbán, L. (1993) Efficient transient expression system based on square pulse electroporation andin vivo luciferase assay of fertilized fish eggs.FEBS Lett. 324, 27–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Murakami, Y., Motohashi, K., Yano, K., Ikebukuro, K., Yokoyama, K., Tamiya, E. and Karube, I. (1994) Micromachined electroporation system for transgenic fish.J. Biotechnol. 34, 35–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Murphy, M.F., Collier, J., Koutz, P. and Howard, B. (1990) Nucleotide sequence of the trout metallothionein A gene 5′ regulatory region.Nucl. Acids Res. 18, 4622.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Nelson, J.S. (1994)Fishes of the World. Wiley.Google Scholar
  133. Newport, J. (1987) Nuclear reconstitutionin vitro: stages of assembly around protein-free DNA.Cell 48, 205–17.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Newport, J. and Kirschner, M. (1982a) A major developmental transition in earlyXenopus embryos: I. Characterization and timing of cellular changes at the midblastula stage.Cell 30, 675–86.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Newport, J. and Kirschner, M. (1982b) A major developmental transition in earlyXenopus embryos: II. Control of the onset of transcription.Cell 30, 687–96.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Nilsson, E. and Lendahl, U. (1993) Transient expression of a human β-actin promoter/lacZ gene introduced into mouse embryos correlates with a low degree of methylation.Mol. Reprod. Dev. 34, 149–57.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Ozato, K. and Wakamatsu, Y. (1994) Developmental genetics of medaka.Develop. Growth Differ. 36, 437–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Ozato, K., Inoue, K. and Wakamatsu, Y. (1989) Transgenic fish: biological and technical problems.Zool. Sci. 6, 445–57.Google Scholar
  139. Palanivelu, P. and Dharmalingam, K. (1993) Growth hormones and transgenic animals.Current Science 64, 169–75.Google Scholar
  140. Paldi, A., Deltour, L. and Jami, J. (1993)Cis effect oflacZ sequences in transgenic mice.Transgenic Res. 2, 325–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Palmiter, R.D. and Brinster, R.L. (1986) Germ-line transformation of mice.Ann. Rev. Genet. 20, 465–99.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Palmiter, R.D., Sandgren, E.P., Avarbock, M.R., Allen, D.D. and Brinster, R.L. (1991) Heterologous introns can enhance expression of transgenes in mice.Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 88, 478–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Penman, D.J., Iyengar, A., Beeching, A.J., Rahman, A., Sulaiman, Z. and Maclean, N. (1991) Patterns of transgene inheritance in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).Mol. Reprod. Dev. 30, 201–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Peters, K.G., Rao, P.S., Bell, B.S. and Kindman, L.A. (1995) Green fluorescent fusion proteins: powerful tools for monitoring protein expression in live zebrafish embryos.Dev. Biol. 171, 252–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Poncelet, A.C., Sekkali, B., Swennen, D., Brim, H., Martial, J.A. and Belayew, A. (1993) Transcriptional regulation of growth hormone and prolactin gene expression in tilapia.Abstract P14. p. 16 in Program and abstracts, Advances in the Molecular Endocrinology of Fish, May 23–25, 1993, Toronto, Canada.Google Scholar
  146. Powell, D.J., Galli, C. and Moor, R.M. (1992) The fate of DNA injected into mammalian oocytes and zygotes at different stages of the cell cycle.Reprod. Fert. 95, 211–20.Google Scholar
  147. Powers, D.A., Chen, T.T. and Dunham, R.A. (1992) Transgenic fish. in Murray, J.A.H. (ed).Transgenesis. Applications of gene transfer. pp. 233–249. John Wiley and sons.Google Scholar
  148. Prioleau, M.N., Huet, J., Sentenac, A. and Méchali, M. (1994) Competition between chromatin and transcription complex assembly regulates gene expression during early development.Cell 77, 439–49.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Pursel, V.G., Pinkert, C.A., Miller, K.F., Bolt, D.J., Campbell, R.G., Palmiter, R.D., Brinster, R.L. and Hammer, R.E. (1989) Genetic engineering of livestock.Science 244, 1281–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Rahman, M.A. and Maclean, N. (1992a) Production of transgenic tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by one-cell-stage micro-injection.Aquaculture 105, 219–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Rahman, A. and Maclean, N. (1992b) Fish transgene expression by direct injection into fish muscle.Mol. Marine Biol. Biotechnol. 1, 286–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Rand-Weaver, M. and Kawauchi, H. (1993) Growth hormone, prolactin and somatolactin: a structural overview. in Hochachka, P.W. and Mommsen, T.M. (eds).Biochemistry and molecular biology of fishes, Vol. 2. pp. 39–56. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  153. Rastogi, R.K. and Iela, L. (1994) Gonadotropin-releasing hormone: present concepts, future directions.Zool. Sci 11, 363–73.Google Scholar
  154. Razin, A. and Cedar, H. (1991) DNA methylation and gene expression.Microbiol. Rev. 55, 451–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Reinhard, E., Nedivi, E., Wegner, J., Skene, J.H.P. and Westerfield, M. (1994) Neural selective activation and temporal regulation of a mammalian GAP-43 promoter in zebrafish.Development 120, 1767–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Rinder, H., Bayer, T.A., Gertzen, E.V. and Hoffman, W. (1992) Molecular analysis of the ependymin gene and functional test of its promoter region by transient expression inBrachydanio rerio.DNA Cell Biol. 11, 425–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Rokkones, E., Aleström, P., Skjervold, H. and Gautvik, K.M. (1989) Microinjection and expression of a mouse metallothionein human growth hormone fusion gene in fertilised salmonid eggs.J. Comp. Physiol. B. 158, 751–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Rossant, J. and Hopkins, N. (1992) Of fin and fur: mutational analysis of vertebrate embryonic development.Genes Dev. 6, 1–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Sakamoto, T., Duan, C. and Hirano, T. (1993) Role of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in mediating growth hormone action.Abstract S9. p5 in Program and abstractsAdvances in the Molecular Endocrinology of Fish. May 23–25, 1993, Toronto, Canada.Google Scholar
  160. Sato, A., Aoki, K., Komura, J.I., Masahito, P., Matsukuma, S. and Ishikawa, T. (1992) Firefly luciferase gene transmission and expression in transgenic medaka (Oryzias latipes).Mol. Mar. Biol. Biotechnol. 1, 318–325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Schartl, M. (1995) Platyfish and swordtails: a genetic system for the analysis of molecular mechanisms in tumor formation.Trends Genet. 11, 185–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Schledzewski, K. and Mendel, R.R. (1994) Quantitative transient gene expression: comparison of the promoters for maize polyubiquitin 1, rice actin 1, maize-derivedEmu and CaMV 35S in cells of barley, maize and tobacco.Transgenic Res. 3, 249–55.Google Scholar
  163. Seeburg, P.H., Mason, A.J., Stewart, T.A. and Nikolics, R. (1987) The mammalian GnRH gene and its pivotal role in reproduction.Recent Prog. in Hormone Res. 43, 69–98.Google Scholar
  164. Sekkali, B., Belayew, A., Martial, J.A., Hellemans, B.A., Ollevier, F. and Volckaert, F.A. (1994) A comparative study of reporter gene activities in fish cells and embryos.Mol. Mar. Biol. Biotechnol. 3, 30–4.Google Scholar
  165. Shears, M.A., Fletcher, G.L., Hew, C.L., Ganthier, S. and Davies, P.L. (1991) Transfer, expression and stable inheritance of antifreeze protein genes in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).Mol. Marine Biol. Biotechnol. 1, 58–63.Google Scholar
  166. Sippel, A.E., Saueressig, H., Winter, D., Grewal, T. Faust, N., Hecht, A. and Bonifer, C. (1992) The regulatory domain organization of eukaryotic genomes: implications for stable gene transfer. in Grosveld, F. and Kollias, G. (eds.).Transgenic animals pp. 1–26. Academic Press.Google Scholar
  167. Stief, A., Winter, D.M., Strätling, W.H. and Sippel, A.E. (1989) A nuclear DNA attachment element mediates elevated and position-independent gene activity.Nature 341, 343–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Stuart, G.W., McMurray, J.V. and Westerfield, M. (1988) Replication, integration and stable germ-line transmission of foreign sequences injected into early zebrafish embryos.Development 103, 403–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Stuart, G.W., Vielkind, J.R., McMurray, J.V. and Westerfield, M. (1990) Stable lines of transgenic zebrafish exhibit reproducible patterns of transgene expression.Development 109, 577–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Sun, L., Bradford, C.S., Ghosh, C., Collodi, P. and Barnes, D.W. (1995) ES-like cell cultures derived from early zebrafish embryos.Mol. Mar. Biol. Biotechnol.,4, 193–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Sutherland, H.F., Lovell-Badge, R.H. and Jackson, I.J. (1993) Characterisation of two identical independent non-homologous integration sites in mouse embryonic stem cells.Gene 131, 265–68.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Symonds, J.E., Walker, S.P. and Sin, F.Y.T. (1994) Electroporation of salmon sperm with plasmid DNA: evidence of enhanced sperm/DNA association.Aquaculture 119, 313–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Szelei, J., Váradi, L., Müller, F., Erdélyi, F., Orbán, L., Horváth, L. and Duda, E. (1994) Liposome-mediated gene transfer in fish embryos.Transgenic Res. 3, 116–9.Google Scholar
  174. Takagi, S., Sasado, T., Tamiya, G., Ozato, K., Wakamatsu, Y., Takeshita, A. and Kimura, M. (1994) An efficient expression vector for transgenic medaka construction.Mol. Mar. Biol. Biotechnol. 3, 192–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Takayama, Y., Wada, C., Kawauchi, H. and Ono, M. (1989) Structures of two genes coding for melanin concentrating hormone of chum salmon.Gene 80, 65–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Tamiya, E., Sugiyama, T., Masaki, K., Hirose, A., Okoshi, T. and Karube, I. (1990) Spatial imaging of luciferase gene expression in transgenic fish.Nucl. Acids Res. 18, 1072.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Tewari, R., Michard-Vanhee, C., Perrot, E. and Chourrout, D. (1992) Mendelian transmission, structure and expression of transgenes following their injection into the cytoplasm of trout eggs.Transgenic Res. 1, 250–60.Google Scholar
  178. Thorgaard, G.H. (1986) Ploidy manipulation and performance.Aquaculture 57, 57–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Trinkaus, J.P. (1992) The midblastula transition, the YSL transition and the onset of gastrulation inFundulus. Development 1992 Supplement, 75–80.Google Scholar
  180. Tsai, H.J., Wang, S.H., Inoue, K., Takagi, S., Kimura, M., Wakamatsu, Y. and Ozato, K. (1995) Initiation of the transgeniclacZ gene expression in medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos.Mol. Mar. Biol. Biotechnol. 4, 1–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Ueno, K., Hamaguchi, S., Ozato, K., Kang, J.H. and Inoue, K. (1994) Foreign gene transfer into nigorobuna (Carassius auratus grandoculis).Mol. Mar. Biol. Biotechnol. 3, 235–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Vielkind, J.R. (1992) Medaka and zebrafish: ideal as transient and stable transgenic systems in Hew, C.L. and Fletcher, G.L. (eds).Transgenic fish pp. 72–91 World Scientific.Google Scholar
  183. Volckaert, F.A., Hellemans, B.A., Galbusera, P., Sekkali, B., Belayew, A. and Ollevier, F. (1994) Replication, expression, and fate of foreign DNA during embryonic and larval development of the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).Mol. Mar. Biol. Biotechnol. 3, 57–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Wakamatsu, Y., Ozato, K., Hashimoto, H., Kinoshita, M., Sakaguchi, M., Iwamatsu, T., Hyodo-Taguchi, Y. and Tomita, H. (1993) Generation of germ line chimeras in medaka (Oryzias latipes).Mol. Mar. Biol. Biotechnol. 2, 325–32.Google Scholar
  185. Wakamatsu, Y., Ozato, K. and Sasado, T. (1994) Establishment of a pluripotent cell line derived from a medaka (Oryzias latipes) blastula embryo.Mol. Mar. Biol. Biotechnol. 3, 185–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Wang, R., Zhang, P., Gong, Z. and Hew, C.L. (1995) Expression of the antifreeze protein gene in transgenic goldfish (Carassius auratus) and its implication in cold adaptation.Mol. Mar. Biol. Biotechnol. 4, 20–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Westerfield, M., Wegner, J., Jegalian, B.G., DeRobertis, E.M. and Püschel, A.W. (1992) Specific activation of mammalianHox promoters in mosaic transgenic zebrafish.Genes Dev. 6, 591–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Williams, D.W., Müller, F., Lavender, F.L., Orbán, L. and Maclean N. (1996) High transgene activity in the yolk syncytial layer affects quantitative transient expression assays in zebrafish embryos.Transgenic Res. (in press).Google Scholar
  189. Winkler, C., Vielkind, J.R. and Schartl, M. (1991) Transient expression of foreign DNA during embryonic and larval development of the medaka fish (Oryzias latipes).Mol. Gen. Genet. 226, 129–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Winkler, C., Hong, Y., Wittbrodt, J. and Schartl, M. (1992) Analysis of heterologous and homologous promoters and enhancersin vitro andin vivo by gene transfer into Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) andXiphophorus.Mol. Mar. Biol. Biotechnol. 1, 326–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Winkler, C., Wittbrodt, J., Lammers, R., Ullrich, A. and Schartl, M. (1994) Ligand-dependent tumor induction in medakafish embryos by a Xmrk receptor tyrosine kinase transgene.Oncogene 9, 1517–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Wu, J.L., Chen, H.C., Lee, C.Y., Hsu, Y.L., Liao, C.F. and Chang, C.Y. (1994) Cloning and characterization of insulin-like growth factor I cDNA from black sea bream (Acanthopagrus schlegeli). Abstract. p72 in Program and Abstracts IMBC, August 7–12, 1994, Tromso, Norway.Google Scholar
  193. Xiong, F., Chin, R.A. and Hew, C.L. (1992) A gene encoding chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) prolactin: gene structure and potential cis-acting regulatory elements.Mol. Mar. Biol. Biotechnol. 1, 155–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Yoon, S.J., Hallerman, E.M., Gross, M.L., Liu, Z., Schneider, J.F., Faras, A.J., Hackett, P.B., Kapuscinski, A.R. and Guise, K.S. (1990) Transfer of the gene for neomycin resistance into goldfish (Carassius auratus).Aquaculture 85, 21–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Yoshizaki, G., Oshiro, T. and Takashima, F. (1991) Introduction of carp α-globin gene into rainbow trout.Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 57, 819–24.Google Scholar
  196. Zafarullah, M., Olsson, P.E. and Gedamu, L. (1989) Rainbow trout metallothionein gene structure and regulation. in Maclean, N. (ed).Oxford Surveys on Eukaryotic Genes, Vol. 6. pp. 111–143. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  197. Zelenin, A.V., Alimov, A.A., Barmintzev, V.A., Beniumov, A.O., Zelenina, I.A., Krasnov, A.M. and Kolesnikov, V.A. (1991) The delivery of foreign genes into fertilized fish eggs using high-velocity microprojectiles.FEBS Lett. 287, 118–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Zhang, P., Hayat, M., Joyce, C., Gonzalez-Villasenor, L.I., Lin, C.M., Dunham, R.A., Chen, T.T. and Powers, D.A. (1990) Gene transfer, expression and inheritance of pRSV-rainbow trout — GHcDNA in the common carpCyprinus carpio.Mol. Reprod. Dev. 25, 13–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Zhao, X., Zhang, P.J. and Wong, T.K. (1993) Application of Baekonization: a new approach to produce transgenic fish.Mol. Mar. Biol. Biotechnol. 2, 63–69.Google Scholar
  200. Zhu, Z. (1992) Generation of fast growing transgenic fish: methods and mechanisms. in Hew, C.L. and Fletcher, G.L. (eds)Transgenic Fish. pp. 92–119. World Scientific.Google Scholar
  201. Zhu, Z., Li, G., He, L. and Chen, S. (1985) Novel gene transfer into the fertilised eggs of the goldfish (Carassius auratus L. 1758).J. Applied Ichthyol. 1, 31–34.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arati Iyengar
    • 1
  • Ferenc Müller
    • 2
  • Norman Maclean
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biology, School of Biological SciencesUniversity of SouthamptomSouthamptonUK
  2. 2.Institute for Molecular GeneticsAgricultural Biotechnology CentreGödöllőHungary

Personalised recommendations