Advertisement

Experientia

, Volume 40, Issue 12, pp 1330–1343 | Cite as

The biology ofPlasmodium in the mosquito

  • R. E. Sinden
The Present State of Malaria Research

Key words

Malaria Plasmodia mosquito gametocyte ookinete oocyst sporozoite 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Aikawa, M., Carter, R., Ito, Y., and Nijhout, M. N., New observations on gametogenesis, fertilization and zygote transformation inPlasmodium falciparum. J. Protozool. (1983) in press.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aikawa, M., Cochrane, A. H., Nussenzweig, R. S., and Rabbege, J., Freeze-fracture study of malaria sporozoite: Antibody-induced changes of the pellicular membranes. J. Protozool.26 (1979) 273–279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Aikawa, M., Huff, C. G., and Sprinz, H., Comparative fine structure study of the gametocytes of avian, reptilian and mammalian malarial parasites. J. Ultrastruct. Res.26 (1969) 316–331.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Aikawa, M., Rener, J., Carter, R., and Miller, L. H., An electron microscopical study of the interaction of monoclonal antibodies with gametes of the malaria parasite. J. Protozool.28 (1981) 383–388.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Alger, N. E.,In vitro development ofPlasmodium berghei ookinetes. Nature218 (1968) 774.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Al-Mashadini, H. M., Davidson, G., and Curtis, C. F., A genetic study of the susceptibility ofAnopheles gambiae inPlasmodium berghei. Trans. Roy. Soc. trop. Med. Hyg.74 (1980) 585–594.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Anderson, C. W., and Cowdry, E. V., Etudes cytologiques sur le paludisme. Étude de la ‘flagellation’ duPlasmodium kochi avec le fond noir. Arch. Inst. Pasteur Tunis17 (1928) 46–72.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Baker, J. R., Nucleic acids in the ookinete ofP. cynomolgi bastianellii. Trans. Roy. Soc. trop. Med. Hyg.57 (1963) 233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ball, G. H., In vitro culture of the mosquito phase of avian malaria. J. Parasit.50 (1964) 3–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ball, G. H., and Chao, J., In vitro development of the mosquito phase ofPlasmodium relictum. Exp. Parasit.9 (1960) 47–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ball, G. H., and Chao, J., Use of amino acids byPlasmodium relictum oocystsin vitro. Exp. Parasit.39 (1976) 115–118.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bano, L., A cytological study of the early oocysts of seven species ofPlasmodium. Parasitology (1959) 559–585.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Beaudoin, R. L., Strome C. P. A., and Tubergen, T. A.,Plasmodium berghei berghei: Ectopic development of the ANKA strain inAnopheles stephensi. Exp. Parasit.36 (1974) 189–201.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bennett, G. F., Warren, Mc. W., and Cheong, W. H., Biology of the Simian malarias of Southeast Asia II. The susceptibility of some Malaysian mosquitoes to infection with five strains ofPlasmodium cynomolgi. J. Parasit.52 (1966) 625–631.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Birago, C., Bucchi, A., Dore, E., and Frontali, C., A mosquito infectivity is directly related to the proportion of repetitive DNA inPlasmodium berghei. Molec. biochem. Parasit.6 (1982) 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Burkot, T. R., Zavala, F., Gwadz, R. W., Collins, F. M., Nussenzweig, R. S., and Roberts, D. R., Identification of malaria infected mosquitoes by a two-site enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay. Am. J. trop. Med. Hyg. (1983) in press.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Canning, E. U., and Sinden, R. E., The organisation of the ookinete and observations on nuclear division in oocysts ofPlasmodium berghei. Parasitology67 (1973) 29–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Carter, R., personal communication.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Carter, R., and Chen, D. H., Malaria transmission blocked by immunisation with gametes of the malaria parasite. Nature263 (1979) 58–60.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Carter, R., and Gwadz, R. W., Infectiousness and gamete immunisation in malaria, in: Malaria, vol. 3, pp. 263–297. Ed. J. P. Kreier. Academic Press, New York 1980.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Carter, R., Gwadz, R. W., and Green, I.,Plasmodium gallinaceum: transmission blocking immunity in chickens. II. The effect of antigamete antibodies in vitro and in vivo and their elaboration during infection. Exp. Parasit.47 (1979) 194–202.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chen, D. H., Preliminary study on the in vitro cultivation of ookinetes of rodent malaria parasites. Chin. J. Zool.1 (1981) 1–5.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chen, D. H., Seeley, D., and Good, W. C., In vitroPlasmodium berghei ookinete formation. 5th Int. Congr. Protozool, 1977, Abstracts p. 21.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Clements, A. N., The Physiology of Mosquitoes. Pergamon Press, Oxford 1963.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Coatney, G. R., Collins, W. E., Warren. McW., and Contactos, P. G., The Primate Malarias, U.S. Department of Health Education and Welfare. N.I.A.I.D., Bethesda, Maryland 20014, USA, 1971.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cochrane, A. H., Aikawa, M., Jeng, M., and Nussenzweig, R. S., Antibody induced ultrastructural changes of malarial sporozoites. J. Immun.116 (1976) 859–867.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cochrane, A. H., Santoro, F., Nussenzweig, V., Gwadz, R. W., and Nussenzweig, R. S., Monoclonal antibodies identify the protective antigens of sporozoites ofPlasmodium knowlesi. Proc. natl Acad. Sci.79 (1982) 5651–5655.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Collins, F. H., Zavala, F., Graves, P. M., Cochrane, A. H., Gwadz, R. W., Akoh, J., and Nussenzweig, R. S., First field trials of a immunoradiometric assay for the detection of malaria sporozoites in mosquitos. Am. J. trop. Med. Hyg.33 (1984) 538–543.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Curtis, C. F., and Graves, P. M., Genetic variation in the ability of insects to transmit filariae, trypanosomes and malarial parasites, in: Current Topics in Pathogen Vector Host Research. Ed. K. F. Harris (1983) in press.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Daher, V. R., and Krettli, A. V., Infectivity ofPlasmodium gallinaceum sporozoite from oocysts. J. Protozool.27 (1980) 440–442.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Davies, E. E., Ultrastructural studies on the early ookinete stage ofPlasmodium berghei nigeriensis and its transformation into an oocyst. Ann. trop. Med. Parasit.68 (1974) 283–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Davies, E. E., Acid hydrolases of the sporogonic stage ofPlasmodium berghei nigeriensis. Ann. trop. Med. Parasit.68 (1974) 379–384.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Davies, E. E., and Howells, R. E., Uptake of3H-adenosine and3H-thymidine by oocyts ofPlasmodium berghei berghei. Trans. Roy. soc. trop. Med. Hyg.67 (1973) 20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Dei-Cas, E., Maurois, P., Landau, I., Dutoit, E., Miltgen, F., Vernes, A., and Biguet, J., Morphologie et infectivité des gamétocytes dePlasmodium inui. Ann. Parasit.55 (1980) 621–633.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Denhofer, U., Erblichkeit der Übertragungsfähigkeit bzw. Resistenz gegen Vogelmalaria bei der StechmückeCulex pipiens L.. Anz. Schädlingsk.44 (1971) 84–91.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Dore, E., Birago, C., Frontali, C., and Battaglia, P. A., Kinetic complexity and repetitivity ofPlasmodium berghei DNA. Molec. biochem. Parasit.1, 199–208.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Dubremetz, J. F., and Torpier, G., Freeze-fracture study of the pellicle of an Eimerine sporozoite. J. Ultrastruct. Res.62 (1978) 94–109.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Dubremetz, J. F., Torpier, G., Maurois, P., Prensier, G., and Sinden, R. E., Structure de la pellicule du sporozoite dePlasmodium yoelii. C. r. Acad. Sci.288 (1979) 623–626.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ellis, J., Osaki, L. S., Gwadz, R. W., Cochrane, A. H., Nussenzweig, V., Nussenzweig, R., and Godson, G. N., Cloning and expression inE. coli of the malarial sporozoite surface antigen gene fromPlasmodium knowlesi. Nature302 (1983) 536–538.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Emmel, L., Jakob, A., and Golz, H., Elektronenoptische Untersuchungen am Malaria-Sporozoiten. Dt. med. Z.46 (1942) 254–258.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Eyles, D. E., Studies onPlasmodium gallinaceum I. Characteristics of the infection in the mosquito,Aedes aegypti. Am. J. trop. Med. Hyg.54 (1951) 101–112.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Eyles, D. E., Studies onPlasmodium gallinaceum. II. Factors in the blood of the vertebrate host influencing mosquito infection. Am. J. trop. Med. Hyg.55 (1952) 276–290.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Eyles, D. E., Studies onPlasmodium gallinaceum. III. Factors associated with the malaria infection in the vertebrate host which influence the degree of infection in the mosquito. Am. J. trop. Med. Hyg.55 (1952) 386–391.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Freyvogel, T. A., Shape, movementin situ and locomotion of Plasmodial ookinetes. Acta trop.23 (1966) 201–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gad, A. M., Maier, W. A., and Piekarski, G., Pathology ofAnopheles stephensi after infection withPlasmodium berghei berghei. I. Mortality rate. Z. ParasitKde60 (1979) 249–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gad, A. M., Maier, W. A., and Piekarski, G., Pathology ofAnopheles stephensi after infection withPlasmodium berghei berghei. II. Changes in amino acid contents. Z. ParasitKde60 (1979) 263–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Gajanana, A., Tewari, S. C., Reuben, R., and Rajagopalan, P. K., Partial suppression of malaria parasites inAedes aegypti andAnopheles stephensi doubly infected withNosema algerae andPlasmodium. Indian J. med. Res.70 (1979) 417–423.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gao, X. Z., and Yuan, G. X., Morphological observations on ookinete formation in rodentPlasmodium (Plasmodium berghei yoelii) in vitro. Acta zool. sin.27 (1981) 153–158.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Garnham, P. C. C., Factors influencing the development of protozoa in their arthropodan hosts, in: Host-Parasitic Relationships in Invertebrate Hosts, pp. 33–50. Ed. A. E. R. Taylor. Blackwell, Oxford 1964.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Garnham, P. C. C., Malaria Parasites and other Haemosporidia. Blackwell, Oxford 1966.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Garnham, P. C. C., Bird, R. G., and Baker, J. R., Electron microscope studies of the motile stages of malaria parasites. Trans. R. Soc. trop. Med. Hyg.54 (1960) 274–278.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Garnham, P. C. C., Bird, R. G., and Baker, J. R., Electron microscope studies of motile stages of malarial parasites. III. The ookinetes ofHaemamoeba andPlasmodium. Trans. R. Soc. trop. Med. Hyg.56 (1962) 116–120.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Garnham, P. C. C., Bird, R. G., Baker, J. R., Desser, S. S., and El Nahal, H. M. S., Electron microscope studies on the motile stages of malaria parasites. VI. The ookinete ofPlasmodium berghei yoelii and its transformation into the early oocyst. Trans. R. Soc. trop. Med. Hyg.63 (1969) 187–194.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Gass, R. F., Influences of blood digestion on the development ofPlasmodium gallinaceum (Brumpt) in the midgut ofAedes aegypti (L). Acta trop.34 (1977) 127–140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Gass, R. F., The ultrastructure of culturedPlasmodium gallinaceum ookinetes. A comparison of intact stages with forms damaged by extracts from blood fed susceptibleAedes aegypti. Acta trop.36 (1979) 323–334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Gass, R. F., and Yeates, R. A. In vitro damage of cultured ookinetes ofPlasmodium gallinaceum by digestive proteinases from susceptibleAedes aegypti. Acta trop.36 (1979) 243–252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Godson, G. N., Ellis, J., Svec, P., Schlesinger, D. H., and Nussenzweig, V., Identification and chemical synthesis of a tandemly repeated immunogenic region ofPlasmodium knowlesi circumsporozoite protein. Nature305 (1983) 29–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Gore, R. C., and Noblet, G. P., The effect of photoperiod on the deep body temperature of domestic turkeys and its relationship to the diurnal periodicity ofLeucocytozoon smithi gametocytes in the peripheral blood of turkeys. Poult. Sci.57 (1978) 603–607.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Gore, R. C., Noblet, G. P., and Noblet, R., Effects of pinealectomy and ocular enucleation on diurnal periodicity ofLeucocytozoon smithi (Haemosporina) gametocytes in the peripheral blood of domestic turkeys. J. Protozool.29 (1982) 415–420.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Gwadz, R. W., Malaria: Successful immunisation against the sexual stages ofPlasmodium gallinaceum. Science193 (1976) 1150–1151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Gwadz, R. W., Koontz, L. C., Miller, L. H., and Davidson, D. E. Jr,Plasmodium gallinaceum: avian screen for drugs with radical curative properties. Exp. Parasit.55 (1983) 188–196.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hawking, F., Wilson, M. E., and Gammage, K., Evidence for cyclic development and short lived maturity in the gametocytes ofPlasmodium falciparum. Trans. R. Soc. trop. Med. Hyg.65 (1971) 549–559.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hecker, H., Intracellular distribution of ribosomes in midgut cells of the malaria mosquitoAnopheles stephensi (Liston) (Insecta: Diptera) in response to feeding. Int. J. Insect Morphol. Ent.7 (1978) 267–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Heidrich, H. C., Danforth, H. D., and Beaudoin, R. L., Free-flow electrophoresis isolation of whole bodyPlasmodium berghei sporozoites, in: Electrophoresis '81, pp. 866–870. Eds R. C. Allen and P. Arnaud. de Gruyter, Berlin/New York 1981.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Hilton, D. F. J., Resistance and susceptibility of some strains of theAnopheles gambiae complex to infections withPlasmodium spp. of rodents. Mosquito News34 (1974) 81–85.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Howells, R. E., Mitochondrial changes during the life cycle ofPlasmodium berghei. Ann. trop. Med. Parasit.64 (1970) 181–187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Howells, R. E., and Davies, E. E., Nuclear division in the oocyst ofPlasmodium berghei. Ann. trop. Med. Parasit.65 (1971) 451–459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Huff, G. G., Individual immunity and susceptibility ofCulex pipiens to various species of bird malaria as studied by means of double infectious feeding. Am. J. Hyg.12 (1930) 424–441.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Huff, G. G., The inheritance of natural immunity ofP. cathemerium in two species ofCulex. J. prev. Med.8 (1931) 249–259.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Huff, G. G., Comparative studies on susceptible and insusceptibleCulex pipiens in relation to infections withPlasmodium cathemerium andP. relictum. Am. J. Hyg.19 (1934) 123–147.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Hulls, R. H., The adverse effects of a microsporidian on sporogony and infectivity ofPlasmodium berghei. Trans. R. Soc. trop. Med. Hyg.65 (1971) 421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Kaay, H. J., van der, and Boorsma, L., A susceptible and refractive strain ofAnopheles atroparvus van Thiel to infection withPlasmodium berghei berghei. Acta leidensia45 (1977) 13–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Kaay, H. J., van der, Noordink, J. P. W., and Boorsma, L., Labelling ofPlasmodium berghei during sporogony. Acta leidensia45 (1977) 7–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Kaay, H. J., van der, Sikkema, A. C. L., and Boorsma, E. G., Observations on the development ofPlasmodium berghei berghei (ANKA) in a susceptible and a refractory strain ofAnopheles atroparvus. van Thiel. Parasitology77 (1979) 47.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kaushal, D. C., Carter, R., Howard, R., and McAuliff, F. M., Characterisation of antigens of mosquito midgut stages ofPlasmodium gallinaceum. I. Zygote surface antigens. J. molec. biochem. Parasit.8 (1983) 53–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Kilama, W. L., and Craig, G. B., Monofactorial inheritance of susceptibility toPlasmodium gallinaceum inAedes aegypti. Ann. trop. Med. Parasit.63 (1969) 419–432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Krotoski, W. A., Omar, M. S., and Jumper, J. R., Immunofluorescent staining of plasmodial, oocysts in the mosquito. J. Parasit.60 (1974) 344–347.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Kumar, N., Grotendorst, C. A., and Carter, R., Biosynthesis of antigens on the surface of the transforming zygote and mature ookinete ofPlasmodium gallinaceum. 2nd Int. Conf. Malaria and Babesiosis 1983; abstracts, p. 136.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Landau, I., Miltgen, F., Boulard, Y., Chabaud, A-G., and Baccam, D., Etudes sur des gamétocytes desPlasmodium du groupe ‘vivax’: morphologie, évolution prise par les Anopheles et infectivité des microgamétocytes dePlasmodium yoelii. Ann. Parasit.54 (1979) 145–161.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Mack, S. R., Samuels, S., and Vanderberg, J. P., Haemolymph ofAnopheles stephensi from uninfected andPlasmodium berghei-infected mosquitoes. 2. Free amino acids. J. Parasit.65 (1979) 130–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Mack, S. R., Samuels, S., and Vanderberg, J. P., Haemolymph ofAnopheles stephensi from non-infected andPlasmodium berghei-infected mosquitoes. 3. Carbohydrates. J. Parasit.65 (1979) 217–221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Mack, S. R., and Vanderberg, J. P.,Plasmodium berghei: Energy metabolism of sporozoites. Exp. Parasit.46 (1978) 317–322.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Mack, S. R., Vanderberg, J. P., and Nawrot, R., Column separation ofPlasmodium berghei sporozoites. J. Parasit.64 (1978) 166–168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Mack, S. R., and Vanderberg, J. P., Haemolymph ofAnopheles stephensi from non-infected andPlasmodium berghei infected mosquitoes. 1. Collection procedure and physical characteristics. J. Parasit.64 (1978) 918–923.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Martin, S. K., Miller, L. H., Nijhout, M. M., and Carter, R.,Plasmodium gallinaceum: Induction of male gametocyte exflagellation by phosphodiesterase inhibitors. Exp. Parasit.44 (1978) 239–242.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Mehlhorn, H., Peters, W., and Haberkorn, A., The formation of kinetes and oocyst inPlasmodium gallinaceum (Haemosporidia) and considerations on phylogenetic relationships between Haemosporidia Piroplasmida and other coccidia. Protistologica15 (1980) 135–154.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Mendis, K. N., and Targett, G. A. T., Immunisation against gametes and asexual erythrocytic stages of a rodent malaria parasite. Nature277 (1979) 389–391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Meszoely, C. A. M., Erbe, E. F., Steere, R. L., Pacheco, N. D., and Beaudoin, R. L.,Plasmodium berghei: Architectural analysis by freeze-fracturing of the intraoocyst sporozoites pellicular system. Exp. Parasit.53 (1982) 229–241.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Moser, G., Brohn, F. H., Danforth, H. D., and Nussenzweig, R. S., Sporozoites of rodent and simian malaria purified by anion exchange retain their immunogenicity and infectivity. J. Protozool.25 (1978) 119–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Nardin, E. H., Gwadz, R. W., and Nussenzweig, R. S. Characterisation of sporozoite surface antigens by indirect fluorescence: Detection of stage- and species-specific antimalarial antibodies. Bull. WHO57 (1979) 211–217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Nardin, E. H., and Nussenzweig, R. S., Stage-specific antigens on the surface membrane of sporozoites of malaria parasites. Nature274 (1978) 55–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Nijhout, M. M.,Plasmodium gallinaceum: exflagellation stimulated by a mosquito factor. Exp. Parasit.48 (1979) 75–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Nijhout, M. M., and Carter, R., Gamete development in malaria parasites: Bicarbonate dependent stimulation by p.H. in vitro. Parasitology76 (1978) 39–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Nussenzweig, R. S., and Chen, J., The antibody response to sporozoites of simian and human malaria parasites: It's stage and species specificity and strain cross-reactivity. Bull. WHO50 (1974) 293–297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Pacheco, N. D., Strome, C. P. A., Mitchell, F., Bawden, M. P., and Beaudoin, R. L., Rapid large scale isolation ofPlasmodium berghei sporozoites from infected mosquitoes. J. Parasit.65 (1979) 414–417.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Peters, W., and Ramkaran, A. E., The influence of p-amino-benzoic acid on the transmission ofPlasmodium yoelii andP. berghei byAnopheles stephensi. Ann. trop. Med. Parasit.74 (1980) 275–282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Ponnudurai, R., Meuwissen, J. H. E. T., Leeuwenberg, A. D. E., Verhave, J. P., and Lensen, A. H. W., The production of mature gametocytes ofPlasmodium falciparum in continuous cultures of different isolates infective to mosquitoes. Trans R. Soc. trop. Med. Hyg.76 (1982) 242–280.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Porchet, E., and Torpier, G., Etude du germe infectieux deSarcocystis tenella etToxoplasma gondii par la technique du cryodécapage. Z. ParasitKde54 (1977) 101–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Rener, J., Carter, R., Rosenberg, Y., and Miller, L. H., Antigamete monoclonal antibodies synergistically block transmission of malaria by preventing fertilization on the mosquito. Proc. natl. Acad. Sci.77 (1980) 6797–6799.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Rener, J., Graves, P. M., Carter, R., Williams, J. L., and Burkot, T. R., Target antigens of transmission blocking immunity on gametes ofPlasmodium falciparum. J. exp. Med.158 (1983) 976–981.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Roller, N. F., and Desser, S. S., The effect of temperature, age and density of gametocytes and changes in gas composition on exflagellation. Can. J. Zool.51 (1973) 577–587.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Rosales-Ronquillo, M. C., and Silverman, P., In vitro ookinete development of the rodent malaria parasite,Plasmodium berghei. J. Parasit.60 (1974) 819–824.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Rosenberg, R., Koontz, L. C., and Carter, L., Infection ofAedes aegypti with zygotes ofPlasmodium gallinaceum fertilized in vitro. J. Parasit.68 (1982) 653–656.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Russell, D. G., Host cell invasion by Apicomplexa: an expression of the parasite's contractile system? Parasitology87 (1983) 199–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Russell, D. G., and Burns, R. G., The polar ring of coccidian sporozoites: a unique microtubule-organising centre. J. Cell Sci.65 (1984) 193–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Russell, D. G., and Sinden, R. E., The role of the cytoskeleton in the motility of coccidian sporozoites. J. Cell Sci.50 (1981) 345–359.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Rutledge, L. C., Gould, D. J., and Tantichareon, B., Factors affecting the infection of anophelines with human malaria in Thailand. Trans. R. Soc. trop. Med. Hyg.63 (1969) 613–619.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Rutledge, L. C., Ward, R. A., and Hayes, D. E.,Plasmodium cynomolgi: the comparative infectiousness of individual rhesus monkeys. Exp. Parasit.33 (1973) 120–126.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Schiefer, B. A., Ward, R. A., and Eldridge, B. F., Effects of malaria infection on laboratory flight performance ofAnopheles stephensi mosquitoes. Exp. Parasit.41 (1977) 397–404.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Schneider, I., and Vanderberg, J. P., Culture of the invertebrate stages of plasmodia and the culture of mosquito tissues, in: Malaria, vol. 2, pp. 235–270. Ed. J. P. Kreier. Academic Press, New York 1980.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Schrével, J., Asfaux-Foucher, G., and Bafort, J. M., Etude ultrastructurale des mitoses multiples au cours de la sporogonie duPlasmodium b. berghei. J. Ultrastruct. Res.59 (1977) 332–350.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Schulman, S., Oppenheim, J. D., and Vanderberg, J. P.,Plasmodium berghei andPlasmodium knowlesi: serum binding to sporozoites. Exp. Parasit.49 (1980) 420–429.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Shute, P. G., The comparative distribution of oocysts of human malaria parasites on the stomach wall ofAnopheles. Trans. R. Soc. trop. Med. Hyg.42 (1948) 324.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Shute, P. G., and Maryon, M., The effect of Pyrimethamine (Daraprim) on the gametocytes and oocysts ofPlasmodium falciparum andPlasmodium vivax. Trans. R. Soc. trop. Med. Hyg.48 (1954) 50–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Simm, A., The identification of gameocyte-specific proteins inPlasmodium falciparum. J. Protozool.30 (1983) 42A.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Sinden, R. E., The sporogonic cycle ofPlasmodium yoelii nigeriensis: A scanning electron microscope study. Protistologica11 (1975) 31–39.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Sinden, R. E., Microgametogenesis inPlasmodium yoelii nigeriensis: a scanning electron microscope investigation. Protistologica11 (1975) 263–268.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Sinden, R. E., Cell Biology, in: Rodent Malaria, pp. 88–168. Eds R. Killick-Kendrick and W. Peters. Academic Press, London 1978.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Sinden, R. E., Sexual development of malarial parasites. Adv. Parasit.23 (1983) 154–216.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Sinden, R. E., The cell biology of sexual development in plasmodium. Parasitology86 (1983) 7–28.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Sinden, R. E., Canning, E. U., and Spain, B. J., Gametogenesis and fertilization inPlasmodium yoelii nigerensis: a transmission electron microscope study. Proc. R. Soc.193 (1975) 55–76.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Sinden, R. E., and Croll, N. A., Cytology and kinetics of microgametogenesis and fertilization ofPlasmodium yoelii nigeriensis. Parasitology70 (1975) 53–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Sinden, R. E., and Garnham, P. C. C., A comparative study of the ultrastructure ofPlasmodium sporozoites within the oocyst and salivary glands with particular reference to the incidence of the micropore. Trans. R. Soc. trop. Med. Hyg.67 (1973) 631–637.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Sinden, R. E., Hartley, R., and King, N., The effect of anti-cytoskeletal agents on microgametogenesis inPlasmodium. Int. J. Parasit. (1985) in press.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Sinden, R. E., and Smalley, M. E., Gametocytes ofPlasmodium falciparum Phagocytosis by leucocytes in vivo and in vitro Trans. R. Soc. trop. Med. Hyg.70 (1976) 344–345.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Sinden, R. E., and Strong, K., An ultrastructural study of the sporogonic development ofPlasmodium falciparum inAnopheles gambiae. Trans. R. Soc. trop. Med. Hyg.72 (1978) 477–491.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Smalley, M. E., and Sinden, R. E.,Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes: their longevity and infectivity. Parasitology74 (1977) 1–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Speer, C. A., Rosales-Ronquillo, M. C., and Siverman, P., Scanning electron microscope observations ofPlasmodium berghei ookinetes in primary mosquito cell cultures. J. invert. Path.24 (1974) 179–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Sterling, R. C., Aikawa, M., and Vanderberg, J. P., The passage ofPlasmodium berghei sporozoites through the salivary glands ofAnopheles stephensi: an electron microscope study. J. Parasit.59 (1973) 593–605.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Strome, C. P. A., and Beaudoin, R. L., The surface of the malaria parasite. 1. Scanning electron microscopy of the oocyst. Exp. Parasit.36 (1974) 131–142.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Terzakis, J. A., Uranyl acetate, a strain and a fixative. J. Ultrastruct. Res.22 (1968) 168–184.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Terzakis, J. A., Transformation of thePlasmodium cynomolgi oocyst. J. Protozool.18 (1971) 62–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Terzakis, J. A.,Plasmodium gallinaceum: Drug induced ultrastructural changes in the oocysts. Exp. Parasit.30 (1971) 260–266.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Terzakis, J. A., Virus-like particles and sporozoite budding. Proc. helminth. Soc. Wash.39 (1972) 129–137.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Terzakis, J. A., Sprinz, H., and Ward, R. A., Sporoblast and sporozoite formation inPlasmodium gallinaceum infection ofAedes aegypti. Mil. Med.131 (1966) 984–992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Terzakis, J. A., Sprinz, H., and Ward, R. A., The transformation of thePlasmodium gallinaceum oocyst inAedes aegypti mosquitoes. J. Cell Biol.34 (1967) 311–326.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Terzian, L. A., A method for screening anti-malarial compounds in the mosquito host. Science106 (1947) 449.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Terzian, L. A., The sulphonamides as factors in increasing susceptibility to parasitic invasion. J. infect. Dis.87 (1950) 285–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Toyé, P. J., Sinden, R. E., and Canning, E. U., The action of metabolic inhibitors on microgametogenesis inPlasmodium yoelii nigerensis. Z. ParasitKde53 (1977) 133–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Turner, D. P., Preliminary observations on, the cell surface ofPlasmodium gallinaceum sporozoites. Trans. Roy. Soc. trop. Med. Hyg.75 (1981) 176–178.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Turner, D. P., Effect of trypsin and neuraminidase on the infectivity ofPlasmodium gallinaceum sporozoites. Ann. trop. Med. Parasit.77 (1983) 119–122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Turner, D. P., and Gregson, N. A., The cell surface ofPlasmodium gallinaceum sporozoites: microelectrophoretic and lectin binding characteristics. Parasitology84 (1982) 227–238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Vanderberg, J. P., Studies on the motility ofPlasmodium sporozoites. J. Protozool.21 (1974) 527–537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Vanderberg, J. P., Development of infectivity by thePlasmodium berghei sporozoite. J. Parasit.61 (1975) 43–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Vanderberg, J. P.,Plasmodium berghei: Quantification of sporozoites injected by mosquitoes feeding on a rodent host. Exp. Parasit.42 (1977) 169–181.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Vanderberg, J. P., and Gwadz, R. W., The transmission by mosquitoes of Plasmodia in the laboratory, in: Malaria, vol. 2, pp. 154–234. Ed. J. P. Kreier Academic Press, New York 1980.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Vanderberg, J. R., Nussenzweig, R., and Most, H., Protective immunity produced by the injection of X-irradiated sporozoites ofP. berghei V.In vitro effects of immune serum on sporozoites. Mil. Med.134 suppl. (1969) 1183–1187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Vanderberg, J. P., Nussenzweig, R. S., Sanabria, Y., Nawrot, R., and Most, H., Stage specificity of antisporozoite antibodies in rodent malaria and its relationship to protective immunity. Proc. helminth Soc. Wash.39 (1972) 514–525.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Vanderberg, J., Rhodin, J., and Yoeli, M., Electron-microscopic and histochemical studies of sporozoite formation inPlasmodium berghei. J. Protozool.14 (1967) 82–103.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Vermeulen, A., unpublished observations.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Vermeulen, A. N., Munster, J. C., van, and Meuwissen, J. H. E. T.,Plasmodium berghei: Immunologically active proteins on the sporozoite surface. Exp. Parasit.53 (1982) 199–208.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Vermeulen, A. N., Ponnudurai, T., Lensen, A. H., Roeffen, W. F. G., and Meuwissen, J. H. E. T., The purification ofPlasmodium falciparum macrogametes and/or zygotes prepared from in vitro cultures. Trans. R. Soc. trop. Med. Hyg.77 (1983) 753–755.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Vermeulen, A. N., Roeffen, W. F. G., Meuwissen, J. H. E. T., and Cochrane, A. H., Molecular weight determination of a malaria sporozoite surface protein purified by immuno-affinity chromatography. Molec. biochem. Parasit. 8 (1984) in press.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Vermeulen, A. N., Roeffen, W. F. G., Munster, J. C. van, and Meuwissen, J. H. E. T., Isolation and characterisation of membrane proteins ofPlasmodium berghei sporozoites. Molec. biochem. Parasit.7 (1983) 197–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Walliker, D., An infection ofPlasmodium berghei derived from sporozoites of a single oocyst. Trans. R. Soc. trop. Med. Hyg.66 (1972) 543.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Walliker, D., The contribution of genetics to the study of Parasitic protozoa. Research Studies Press Limited. Letchworth, Herts. 1983.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Warren, Mc. W., and Collins, W. E., Vector parasite interactions and the epidemiology of malaria, in: Parasitological Topics, p. 266–274. Ed. E. U. Canning. Society of Protozoologists, London 1981.Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Weathersby, A. B., The ectopic development of malarial oocysts. Exp. Parasit.3 (1954) 538–543.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Weathersby, A. B., Further studies on the exogenous development of malaria in the haemocoeles of mosquitoes. Exp. Parasit.10 (1960) 211–213.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Weathersby, A. B., Parabiotic twinning of mosquitoes. Mosquito News25 (1965) 44–45.Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Weathersby, A. B., The haemocoele as a barrier to parasite infection in insects, in: Invertebrate Immunity, p. 273–288. Eds K. Maramorosch and R. E. Shope. Academic Press, New York 1975.Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Weiss, M. M., and Vanderberg, J. P., Studies onPlasmodium ookinetes. 1. Isolation and concentration from mosquito midguts. J. Protozool.23 (1976) 547–551.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Weiss, M. M., and Vanderberg, J. P., Studies onPlasmodium ookinetes. 2. In vitro development J. Parasit.63 (1977) 932–934.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Yoeli, M., Movement of the sporozoites ofPlasmodium berghei (Vincke et Lips, 1948). Nature201 (1964) 1344–1345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Yoeli, M., and Upmanis, R. S.,Plasmodium berghei: ookinete formationin vitro. Exp. Parasit.22 (1968) 122–128.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Yoshida, N., Potocnjak, P., Nussenzweig, V., and Nussenzweig, R. S., Biosynthesis of Pb 44, the protective antigen of sporozoites ofPlasmodium berghei. J. exp. Med.154 (1981) 1225–1236.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Zavala, F., Cochrane, A. H., Nardin, E. H., Nussenzweig, R. S., and Nussenzweig, V., Circumsporozoite proteins of malaria parasites contain a single immunodominant region with two or more identical epitopes. J. exp. Med.157 (1983) 1947–1957.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Zavala, F., Gwadz, R. W., Collins, F. H., Nussenzweig, R. S., and Nussenzweig, V., Monoclonal antibodies to circumsporozoite proteins identify the species of malaria parasite in infected mosquitoes. Nature299 (1982) 737–738.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. E. Sinden
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pure and Applied BiologyImperial CollegeLondon(England)

Personalised recommendations