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Experientia

, Volume 43, Issue 8, pp 943–946 | Cite as

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in overwintering monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) from mexico

  • R. B. Kelley
  • J. N. Seiber
  • A. D. Jones
  • H. J. Segall
  • L. P. Brower
Short Communications

Summary

North American populations of the monarch butterfly,Danaus plexippus, have been found to contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids and their N-oxides. Analytical methods (TLC, GC, and GC/MS) have been developed to isolate, quantitate, and structurally elucidate the alkaloids. Examples of at least two classes of pyrrolizidine alkaloids have been identified, the macrocyclic diesters, senecionine, integerrimine, and seneciphylline, and the monoesters, echinatine, intermedine, and lycopsamine.

Key words

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids macrocyclic diesters monoesters dihydropyrrolizines Lepidoptera Danaus plexippus monarch butterflies overwintering asteraceae Boraginaceae ecological chemistry 

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Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. B. Kelley
    • 1
    • 2
  • J. N. Seiber
    • 1
    • 2
  • A. D. Jones
    • 1
    • 2
  • H. J. Segall
    • 1
    • 2
  • L. P. Brower
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Toxicology, Facility for Advanced Instrumentation and Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and ToxicologyUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA
  2. 2.Department of ZoologyUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA

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