The Visual Computer

, Volume 3, Issue 5, pp 290–297 | Cite as

Abstract muscle action procedures for human face animation

  • N. Magnenat-Thalmann
  • E. Primeau
  • D. Thalmann


A new way of controlling human face animation and synchronizing speech is proposed. It is based on the concept of abstract muscle action procedure (AMA procedure). An AMA procedure is a specialized procedure which simulates the specific action of a face muscle. This paper describes the new technique and presents a methodology for animating the face of synthetic actors based on three levels: the AMA-procedure level, the expression level and the script level. The role of multiple tracks is also emphasized. Practical examples are also explained in detail, based on the filmRendez-vous à Montréal with the synthetic actors Marilyn Monroe and Humphrey Bogart.

Key words

Facial animation Muscle Phoneme Expression Script 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. Magnenat-Thalmann
    • 1
  • E. Primeau
    • 1
  • D. Thalmann
    • 1
  1. 1.MIRALab, HEC/IROUniversité de MontréalCanada

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