The Visual Computer

, Volume 4, Issue 6, pp 306–331 | Cite as

Deformable models

  • Demetri Terzopoulos
  • Kurt Fleischer


We develop physically-based models of deformable curves, surfaces, and solids for use in computer graphics. Our deformable models are governed by the mechanical laws of continuous bodies whose shapes can change over time. These laws, expressed in the form of dynamic differential equations, unify the description of shape and motion. By solving the equations numerically we are able to create realistic animations involving the interaction of deformable models with various applied forces, ambient media, and impenetrable obstacles in a simulated physical world. We develop deformable models capable of perfectly elastic behavior and more general inelastic behavior, including viscoelasticity, plasticity, and fracture.

Key words

Modeling Animation Deformation Elasticity Dynamics Simulation 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Demetri Terzopoulos
    • 1
  • Kurt Fleischer
    • 1
  1. 1.Schlumberger Palo Alto ResearchPalo AltoUSA

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