Urinary incontinence during pregnancy in a racially mixed sample: Characteristics and predisposing factors
The objectives of the study were to assess the prevalence of urinary incontinence symptoms during pregnancy in a racially mixed sample and to identify potential predisposing variables. Five hundred and twenty-three women were interviewed in the hospital on postpartum day 2 or 3 and by telephone at 6-week follow-up. A significantly larger proportion of white women reported accidental loss of urine than did black women (62.6% vs. 46.4%;P<0.01). A breakdown by type of incontinence indicated that the race effect was largely attributable to the significantly higher prevalence of the symptom of stress incontinence among white women (P<0.0001). In stepwise logistic regression modeling, previous incontinence, education level, parity and nocturia were selected as the strongest predictors of incontinence in white women. Attendance at childbirth classes was the only predictor of incontinence for black women. The results raise the possibility that higher rates of incontinence among white women might be due to differences in the pelvic floor.
KeywordsPregnancy Racial differences Urinary incontinence
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 2.Cutner A, Cardozo LD. The lower urinary tract in pregnancy and the puerperium.Int Urogynecol J 1992;3:317–323Google Scholar
- 3.Francis WJA. The onset of stress incontinence.J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw 1960;67:899–903Google Scholar
- 4.Viktrup L, Lose G, Rolf M, Barfoed K. The frequency of urinary symptoms during pregnancy and puerperium in the primipara.Int Urogynecol J 1993;4:27–30Google Scholar
- 5.Landon CR, Crofts CE, Smith ARB, Trowbridge EA. Mechanical properties of fascia during pregnancy: a possible factor in the development of stress incontinence of urine.Comtemp Rev Obstet Gynecol 1990;2:40–46Google Scholar
- 6.Cutner A, Cardozo LD, Benness CJ, Carey A, Cooper D. Detrusor instability in early pregnancy.Neurourol Urodyn 1990;9:328–329Google Scholar
- 7.Cutner A, Cardozo LD, Benness CJ. Assessment of urinary symptoms in the second half of pregnancy.Int Urogynecol J 1992;3:30–32Google Scholar
- 8.Iosif S. Stress incontinence during pregnancy and in puerperium.Int J Gynecol Obstet 1981;19:13–20Google Scholar
- 10.Yarnell JWG, Voyle, GJ, Seetnam PM, Milbank J. Factors associated with urinary incontinence in women.J Epidemiol Commun Health 1982;36:58–63Google Scholar