Oecologia

, Volume 90, Issue 4, pp 540–549

Energy allocation rules inDaphnia magna: clonal and age differences in the effects of food limitation

  • Douglas S. Glazier
  • Peter Calow
Original Papers

Summary

The allocation of energy to carapace formation, respiration, growth, and reproduction were examined in two parthenogenetic clones ofDaphnia magna (Cladocera) cultured at two levels of food (Chlorella) concentration. Clonal differences in energy allocation were more apparent at high ration (1.5 μg C mL-1) than at low ration (0.3 μg C mL-1). These differences included respiratory and molting costs, and the timing of energy allocation to growth and reproduction. A comparison of active vs. anesthetized animals revealed that the interclonal difference in respiration rate was the result of a difference in activity level. In both clones mass-specific rates of respiration, growth, and brood production all decreased at low vs. high ration levels, whereas mass-specific molt-loss rate increased. Lowered food concentration decreased the relative allocation of energy to growth and reproduction, but increased allocation to maintenance (respiration and carapace formation). These allocation responses to food limitation indicated that for both clones the highest energy priority was carapace formation. However, the relative priority of respiration, growth and reproduction varied with age and clone. In juveniles (instars 1–4) the priority ranking of growth was essentially equal to that of respiration, whereas respiration always had higher priority in adults (instars 5–9). All three possibilities for the relative ranking of growth and reproduction (i.e., growth>reproduction, growth=reproduction, and reproduction>growth), as specified by different models in the literature, were observed depending on age and clone. The energy allocation rules were also shown to vary between other daphniid species. Furthermore, metabolic responses to chronic food limitation may be different from responses to acute food deprivation. In this study, one clone showed a greater decrease in respiration rate as a result of lifetime food limitation than did the other, but the opposite was true when these clones were exposed to 48 h of starvation. These differences in allocation rules and in acute vs. chronic responses may have to be considered when using physiological data to modelDaphnia populations.

Key words

Age Clones Daphnia Energy allocation Food concentration 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. ASTM (1980) Standard practice for conducting acute toxicity tests with fishes, macroinvertebrates, and amphibians. American Standards for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, USA, pp E729–780Google Scholar
  2. Baird DJ, Barber I, Bradley MC, Soares AMVM, Calow P (1989) The long-term maintenance ofDaphnia magna Straus for use in toxicity tests: problems and prospects. In: Lokke H, Tyle H, BroRasmussen F (eds) Proceedings of the First European Conference on Ecotoxicology. Lyngby, Denmark, pp 144–148Google Scholar
  3. Baird DJ, Barber I, Calow P (1990) Clonal variation in general responses ofDaphnia magna Straus to toxic stress. I. Chronic life-history effects. Funct Ecol 4:399–407Google Scholar
  4. Banta AM, Wood TR, Brown LA, Ingle L (1939) Studies on the physiology, genetics, and evolution of some Cladocera. Carnegie Institution Paper 39, Washington, DC, USAGoogle Scholar
  5. Barber I, Baird DJ, Calow P (1990) Clonal variation in general responses ofDaphnia magna Straus to toxic stress. II. Physiological effects. Funct Ecol 4:409–414Google Scholar
  6. Bell G, Koufopanou V (1986) The cost of reproduction. In: Dawkins R, Ridley M (eds) Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary Biology. Oxford Univ Press, Oxford, pp 83–131Google Scholar
  7. Bohrer RN, Lampert W (1988) Simultaneous measurement of the effect of food concentration on assimilation and respiration inDaphnia magna Straus. Funct Ecol 2:463–471Google Scholar
  8. Bradley MC, Calow P (1988) The genetical composition ofDaphnia magna used for ecotoxicological testing purposes. (Unpublished EC Contract Report CCAM/87/319). Commission of the European CommunityGoogle Scholar
  9. Bradley MC, Perrin N, Calow P (1991) Energy allocation in the cladoceranDaphnia magna Straus, under starvation and refeeding. Oecologia 86:414–418Google Scholar
  10. Elliott JM, Davison W (1975) Energy equivalents of oxygen consumption in animal energetics. Oecologia 19:195–201Google Scholar
  11. Evers EG, Kooijman SALM (1989) Feeding, digestion and oxygen consumption inDaphnia magna. A study in energy budgets. Neth J Zool 39:56–78Google Scholar
  12. Gatto M, Matessi C, Slobodkin LB (1989) Physiological profiles and demographic rates in relation to food quantity and predictability: an optimization approach. Evol Ecol 3:1–30Google Scholar
  13. Gebhardt MD, Stearns SC (1988) Reaction norms for developmental time and weight at eclosion inDrosophila mercatorum. J Evol Biol 1:335–354Google Scholar
  14. Glazier DS (1991) Separating the respiration rates of embryos and brooding females ofDaphnia magna: Implications for the cost of brooding and the allometry of metabolic rate. Limnol Oceanogr 36:354–362Google Scholar
  15. Glazier DS (1992) Effects of food, genotype, and maternal size and age on offspring investment inDaphnia magna. Ecology 73Google Scholar
  16. Goulden CD, Henry LL, Tessier AJ (1982) Body size, energy reserves, and competitive ability in three species of Cladocera. Ecology 63:1780–1789Google Scholar
  17. Hallam TG, Lassiter RR, Li J, Suarez LA (1990) Modelling individuals employing an integrated energy response: application toDaphnia. Ecology 71:938–954Google Scholar
  18. Heisey D, Porter KG (1977) The effect of ambient oxygen concentration on filtering and respiration rates ofDaphnia galeata mendotae andDaphnia magna. Limnol Oceanogr 22:839–845Google Scholar
  19. Hirshfield MF (1980) An experimental analysis of reproductive effort and cost in the Japanese MedakaOryzias latipes. Ecology 61:282–292Google Scholar
  20. Ingle L, Wood TR, Banta AM (1973) A study of longevity, growth, reproduction and heart rate inDaphnia longispina as influenced by limitations in quantity of food. J Exp Zool 76:325–352Google Scholar
  21. Koehn RK, Bayne BL (1989) Towards a physiological and genetical understanding of the energetics of the stress response. Biol J Linnean Soc 37:157–171Google Scholar
  22. Kooijman SALM (1986) Population dynamics on basis of budgets. In: Metz JAJ, Dickmann O (eds) The dynamics of physiologically structured populations. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 266–297Google Scholar
  23. Kooijman SALM, van der Hoeven N, van der Werf DC (1989) Population consequences of a physiological model for individuals. Funct Ecol 3:325–336Google Scholar
  24. Lampert W (1986) Response of the respiratory rate ofDaphnia magna to changing food conditions. Oecologia 70:495–501Google Scholar
  25. Lei C-H, Armitage KB (1980) Energy budget ofDaphnia ambigua Scourfield. J Plankton Res 2:261–281Google Scholar
  26. Lynch M (1989) The life history consequences of resource depression inDaphnia pulex. Ecology 70:246–256Google Scholar
  27. Lynch M, Weider LJ, Lampert W (1986) Measurement of the carbon balance inDaphnia. Limnol Oceanogr 31:17–33Google Scholar
  28. Maynard DM (1960) Circulation and heart function. In: Waterman TH (ed) The physiology of crustacea, vol 1. Academic, New York, pp 161–226Google Scholar
  29. McCauley E, Murdoch WW, Nisbet RM (1990a) Growth, reproduction, and mortality ofDaphnia pulex Leydig: life at low food. Funct Ecol 4:505–514Google Scholar
  30. McCauley E, Murdoch WW, Nisbet RM, Gurney WSC (1990b) The physiological ecology ofDaphnia: development of a model of growth and reproduction. Ecology 71:703–715Google Scholar
  31. Obreshkove V, Banta AM (1930) A study of the rate of oxygen consumption in different Cladocera clones derived originally from a single mother. Physiol Zool 3:1–8Google Scholar
  32. Paloheimo JE, Crabtree SJ, Taylor WD (1982) Growth model ofDaphnia. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 39:598–606Google Scholar
  33. Peters RH (1987) Metabolism inDaphnia. In: Peters RH, de Bernardi R (eds)Daphnia. Mem Ist Ital Idrobiol, 45, Pallanza, pp 193–243Google Scholar
  34. Philippova TG, Postnov AL (1988) The effect of food quantity on feeding and metabolic expenditure in Cladocera. Int Revue ges Hydrobiol 73:601–615Google Scholar
  35. Richman S (1958) The transformation of energy byDaphnia pulex. Ecol Monogr 28:273–291Google Scholar
  36. Schindler DW (1968) Feeding, assimilation and respiration rates ofDaphnia magna under various environmental conditions and their relation to production estimates. J Anim Ecol 37:369–385Google Scholar
  37. Sharma PC, Pant MC (1984) An energy budget forSimocephalus vetulus (O.F. Muller) (Crustacea: Cladocera). Hydrobiologia 111:37–42Google Scholar
  38. Sibly RM, Calow P (1986) Physiological ecology of animals. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  39. Soares AMVM (1989) Clonal variation in life-history traits inDaphnia magna Straus (Crustacea, Cladocera). Implications for ecotoxicology. PhD dissertation, Univ Sheffield, Sheffield, UKGoogle Scholar
  40. Sokal RR, Rohlf FJ (1981) Biometry. Freeman, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  41. Stearns SC (1989) Trade-offs in life-history evolution. Funct Ecol 3:259–268Google Scholar
  42. Stein JR (1973) Handbook of phycological methods, culture methods and growth measurements. Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  43. Taylor BE (1985) Effects of food limitation on growth and reproduction ofDaphnia. Arch Hydrobiol Beih Ergebn Limnol 21:285–296Google Scholar
  44. Threlkeld ST (1979) Estimating cladoceran birth rates: the importance of egg mortality and the egg age distribution. Limnol Oceanogr 24:601–612Google Scholar
  45. Tilman D (1988) Plant strategies and the dynamics and structure of plant communities. Princeton Univ Press, Princeton, NJ, USAGoogle Scholar
  46. Urabe J, Watanabe Y (1990) Influence of food density on respiration rate of two crustacean plankters,Daphnia galeata andBosmina longirostris. Oecologia 82:362–368Google Scholar
  47. Wulff FV (1980) Animal community structure and energy budget calculations of aDaphnia magna (Straus) population in relation to the rock pool environment. Ecol Modelling 11:179–225Google Scholar
  48. Zaffagnini F (1987) Reproduction inDaphnia. In: Peters RH, De Bernardi R (eds)Daphnia. Mem Ist Ital Idrobiol, 45, Pallanza, pp 245–284Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Douglas S. Glazier
    • 1
  • Peter Calow
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Animal and Plant SciencesUniversity of SheffieldSheffieldUK
  2. 2.Department of BiologyJuniata CollegeHuntingdonUSA

Personalised recommendations