Environmental Management

, Volume 13, Issue 2, pp 133–147

The need to integrate values into environmental curricula

  • John Lemons


Many environmental problems are controversial because of conflicting values people hold and because there is not a consensus as to which values should have precedence over others. If environmental managers are to make ethical decisions that reflect environmental values, they must have full understanding of such values and types of ethics and principles of moral reasoning to use in the decision-making process. Unfortunately, integration of values into environmental curricula has often not been explicit or comprehensive. One result is that university-trained environmental managers do not possess the knowledge, skills, and methods necessary for more ethically based decisions. An analysis of attitudes about integrating values and/or ethics into environmental curricula and approaches to do so yields the conclusion that environmental programs should more fully include teaching about values and ethics so that environmental managers can make more ethically sound decisions.

Key words

Environmental curricula Environmental values Ethics 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature cited

  1. Attfield, R. 1983. The ethics of environmental concern. Columbia University Press, New York, New York.Google Scholar
  2. Barbour, I. 1980. Technology, environment, and human values. Praeger Scientific, New York, New York.Google Scholar
  3. Bartlett, R. V. 1986. Ecological rationality: Reason and environmental policy.Environmental Ethics 8:221–240.Google Scholar
  4. Bok, D. 1982. Beyond the ivory tower. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  5. Caldwell, L. 1987. The contextual basis for environmental decisionmaking: Assumptions are predeterminants of choice.The Environmental Professional 9:302–308.Google Scholar
  6. Care, N. S. 1982. Future generations, public policy, and the motivation problem.Environmental Ethics 4:195–214.Google Scholar
  7. Carter, A. H., III. 1983. The teaching of values in colleges and universities.New Directions for Teaching and Learning 13:11–18.Google Scholar
  8. Center for the Study of Education and Society. 1985. The Antaeus report (no publisher given).Google Scholar
  9. Cutcliffe, S. H. (ed.). 1986. Science, technology, and society, vols. 1–56. Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
  10. Disinger, J. F., and A. C. Schoenfeld (eds.). 1987. Focus on environmental studies.The Environmental Professional 9:185–274.Google Scholar
  11. Earley, M. 1980. Valuing at Alverno: The valuing process in liberal education. Alverno Productions, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  12. Hargrove, E. 1987. The value of environmental ethics.The Environmental Professional 9:289–294.Google Scholar
  13. Kohlberg, L. 1971. Stages of moral development as a basis for moral education.In C. M. Beck, B. S. Critenden, and E. V. Sullivan (eds.). Moral education. Newman Press, New York, New York.Google Scholar
  14. Lemons, J. 1984. Can the carbon dioxide problem be resolved?The Environmental Professional 6:52–77.Google Scholar
  15. Lemons, J. 1985. Deep Springs College: An alternative approach to the teaching of values and change in environmental programs.The Environmental Professional 7:87–99.Google Scholar
  16. Lemons, J. (ed.). 1987. Focus on environmental ethics.The Environmental Professional 9:277–368.Google Scholar
  17. Lemons, J. (ed.). 1988. Focus on environmental ethics (II).The Environmental Professional 10:1–53.Google Scholar
  18. Newell, L. J. 1982. Among the few at Deep Springs College: Assessing a seven-decade experiment in liberal education.The Journal of General Education 34:120–134.Google Scholar
  19. Perry, W. G., Jr. 1970. Forms of intellectual and ethical development in the college years: A scheme. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, New York.Google Scholar
  20. Piaget, J. 1965. Moral judgement of the child. Free Press, New York, New York.Google Scholar
  21. Regan, T. (ed.). 1984. Earthbound. Random House, New York, New York.Google Scholar
  22. Rolston, H., III. 1987. Engineers, butterflies, worldviews.The Environmental Professional 9:295–301.Google Scholar
  23. Schuman, D. 1981. Education and solipsism.Coevolution Quarterly Spring: 132–139.Google Scholar
  24. Schwartz, A. M., and J. Miles. 1987. The status of post-secondary environmental education in North America.The Environmental Professional 9:352–356.Google Scholar
  25. Shrader-Frechette, K. S., 1982. Environmental impact assessment and the fallacy of unfinished business.Environmental Ethics 4:37–47.Google Scholar
  26. Simon, S., and J. Clark. 1975. Beginning values clarification: For the classroom. Pennant Press, San Diego, California.Google Scholar
  27. Sloan, D. 1980. The teaching of ethics in the American undergradute curriculum, 1876–1976. Page 2in D. Callahan and S. Bok (eds.). Ethics teaching in higher education. Plenum Press, New York, New York.Google Scholar
  28. Sollitto, S., R. M. Veatch, and D. Fenner. 1975. A selected and partially annotated bibliography of society, ethics and life sciences. Institute of Society, Ethics and Life Sciences, Hastings on Hudson, New York.Google Scholar
  29. Study Group on the Conditions of Excellence in American Higher Education. 1984. Involvement in learning. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  30. Thompson, P. B. 1986. Uncertainty arguments in environmental issues.Environmental Ethics 8:59–76.Google Scholar
  31. Thompson, P. B. 1987. Agricultural biotechnology and the rhetoric of risk: Some conceptual problems.The Environmental Professional 9:316–326.Google Scholar
  32. Wasserman, E. R. 1980. Implementing Kohlberg's “just community” concept in an alternative high school. Pages 188–198in V. L. Erickson and J. M. Whiteley (eds.). Developmental counseling and teaching. Wadsworth, Belmont, California.Google Scholar
  33. Wein, B. J. (ed.) No date. Peace and world order studies. World Policy Institute, New York, New York.Google Scholar
  34. Whiteley, J. M. 1980. Extracurricular influence on the moral development of college students.New Directions for Higher Education 31:45–50.Google Scholar
  35. Whiteley, J. M., and L. C. Loxley. 1980. A curriculum for the development of character and community in college students. Pages 262–297in V. L. Erickson and J. M. Whiteley (eds.). Developmental counseling and teaching. Wadsworth, Belmont, California.Google Scholar
  36. Wolman, M. G. 1977. Interdisciplinary education: A continuing experiment.Science 198:800–804.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Lemons
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Life SciencesUniversity of New EnglandBiddefordUSA

Personalised recommendations