Advertisement

The Journal of Membrane Biology

, Volume 3, Issue 1, pp 93–122 | Cite as

Junction potentials, electrode standard potentials, and other problems in interpreting electrical properties of membranes

  • Peter H. Barry
  • Jared M. Diamond
Article

Summary

As background to a detailed analysis of the cation permeation mechanism in rabbit gallbladder epithelium, this paper considers several general problems in interpretation. With regard to liquid junction potentials, the common practice of using saturated KCl bridges was insufficiently accurate for the present purposes because the resulting junctions are time-dependent and poorly understood theoretically. Time-independent and well-defined junction potentials were obtained by arranging all junctions to be of the biionic or single-salt dilution types. The magnitudes of these junction potentials were estimated in three different ways, with good agreement. Recording arrangements using either agar bridges or else Ag/AgCl electrodes also yielded good agreement after appropriate corrections for junction potentials and electrode potentials. The effects of nonelectrolytes on electrode standard potentials were measured. Two experiments were devised to determine whether transepithelially measured electrical properties of the gallbladder refer to a single membrane or to two membranes in series: the potential difference change resulting from a mucosal concentration change was measured as a function of the serosal concentration, and intracellular concentrations were altered by increasing bathing solution osmolalities with an impermeant nonelectrolyte. Both types of experiment indicated that transepithelial measurements are dominated by a single membrane. Small corrections were applied to measured potential differences to take account of unstirred-layer effects with permeant salts.

Keywords

Junction Potential Single Membrane Liquid Junction Potential Electrode Standard Potential Gallbladder Epithelium 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Barry, P. H., Diamond, J. M., Wright, E. M. 1970. The mechanism of cation permeation in rabbit gallbladder: Dilution potentials and biionic potentials. (in preparation).Google Scholar
  2. Brightman, M. W., Reese, T. S. 1969. Junction between intimately apposed cell membranes in the vertebrate brain.J. Cell Biol. 40:648.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Caldwell, P. C. 1968. Liquid junction potentials and their effect on potential measurements in biological systems.Int. Rev. Cytol. 24:345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Diamond, J. M. 1962a. The reabsorptive function of the gall-bladder.J. Physiol. 161:442.Google Scholar
  5. — 1962b. The mechanism of solute transport by the gall-bladder.J. Physiol. 161:474.Google Scholar
  6. — 1964. Transport of salt and water in rabbit and guinea pig gall-bladder.J. Gen Physiol. 48:1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. — 1966. A rapid method for determining voltage-concentration relations across membranes.J. Physiol. 183:83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. — 1968. Transport mechanisms in the gall-bladder.In: Handbook of Physiology, vol. 5. p. 2451. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  9. —, Harrison, S. C. 1966. The effect of membrane fixed charges on diffusion potentials and streaming potentials.J. Physiol. 183:37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Eisenman, G. 1965. The electrochemistry of cation-sensitive glass electrodes.In: Advances in Analytical Chemistry and Instrumentation, vol. 4. C. N. Reilley, editor. Interscience Publishers, New York.Google Scholar
  11. Garrels, R. M. 1967. Ion-sensitive electrodes and individual ion activity coefficients.In: Glass Electrodes for Hydrogen and Other Cations. G. Eisenman, editor. p. 344. Marcel Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  12. Kelly, F. J., Robinson, R. A., Stokes, R. H. 1961. The thermodynamics of the ternary system mannitol-sodium chloride — water at 25o from solubility and vapour pressure measurements.J. Phys. Chem. 65:1958.Google Scholar
  13. MacInnes, D. A. 1961. The Principles of Electrochemistry. Dover Publications, New York.Google Scholar
  14. Robinson, R. A., Stokes, R. H. 1962. Activity coefficients of mannitol and potassium chloride in mixed aqueous solutions at 25o.J. Phys. Chem. 66:506.Google Scholar
  15. —— 1965. Electrolyte Solutions. Butterworths, London.Google Scholar
  16. Sandblom, J. P., Eisenman, G. 1967. Membrane potentials at zero current. The significance of a constant ionic permeability ratio.Biophys. J. 7:217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Teorell, T. 1953. Transport processes and electrical phenomena in ionic membranes.Prog. Biophys. Biophys. Chem. 3:305.Google Scholar
  18. Tormey, J. McD., Diamond, J. M. 1967. The ultrastructural route of fluid transport in rabbit gall-bladder.J. Gen. Physiol. 50:2031.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Ussing, H. H., Windhager, E. E. 1964. Nature of shunt path and active sodium transport path through frog skin epithelium.Acta Physiol. Scand. 61:484.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Windhager, E. E., Boulpaep, E. L., Giebisch, G. 1967. Electrophysiological studies on single nephrons.In: Proc. 3rd Int. Congr. Nephrol. (Washington, D.C., 1966), vol. 1, p. 35. Karger, Basel-New York.Google Scholar
  21. Wright, E. M., Barry, P. H., Diamond, J. M. 1970. The mechanism of cation permeation in rabbit gall-bladder: Conductances, the concentration dependence of anion-cation discrimination, and the calcium competition effect (in preparation).Google Scholar
  22. —, Diamond, J. M. 1968. Effects of pH and polyvalent cations on the selective permeability of gall-bladder epithelium to monovalent ions.Biochim. Biophys. Acta 163:57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. —— 1969. An electrical method of measuring non-electrolyte permeability.Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B. 172:203.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1970

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter H. Barry
    • 1
  • Jared M. Diamond
    • 1
  1. 1.Physiology DepartmentUniversity of California Medical CenterLos Angeles

Personalised recommendations