Environmental Management

, Volume 11, Issue 3, pp 351–357 | Cite as

The role of stand history in assessing forest impacts

  • Virginia H. Dale
  • Thomas W. Doyle
Research

Abstract

Air pollution, harvesting practices, and natural disturbances can affect the growth of trees and forest development. To make predictions about anthropogenic impacts on forests, we need to understand how these factors affect tree growth. In this study the effect of disturbance history on tree growth and stand structure was examined by using a computer model of forest development. The model was run under the climatic conditions of east Tennessee, USA, and the results compared to stand structure and tree growth data from a yellow poplar-white oak forest. Basal area growth and forest biomass were more accurately projected when rough approximations of the thinning and fire history typical of the measured plots were included in the simulation model. Stand history can influence tree growth rates and forest structure and should be included in any attempt to assess forest impacts.

Key words

Forest disturbance Eastern deciduous forest Simulation model Stand development 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature cited

  1. Bormann, F. H. 1965. Changes in the growth pattern of white pine trees undergoing suppression.Ecology 46:269–277.Google Scholar
  2. Botkin, D. B., J. F. Janak, and J. R. Wallis, 1972. Some ecological consequences of a computer model of forest growth.Journal of Ecology 60:849–872.Google Scholar
  3. Dale, V. H., M. Hemstrom, and J. F. Franklin. 1986. Modeling the long-term effects of disturbances on forest succession, Olympic Peninsula, Washington.Canadian Journal of Forest Research 16:56–67.Google Scholar
  4. Doyle, T. W. 1981. The role of disturbance in the gap dynamics of a montane rain forest: an application of a tropical forest succession model. Pages 56–73in D. C. West, H. H. Shugart, and D. B. Botkin (eds.), Forest succession concepts and application. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  5. Doyle, T. W. 1983. Competition and growth relationships in a mixed-age, mixed-species forest community. Unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee.Google Scholar
  6. Franklin, J. F., K. Cromack, Jr., W. Denison, A. McKee, C. Maser, J. Sedell, F. Swanson, and G. Juday. 1981. Ecological characteristics of old-growth douglas-fir forests. US Department of Agriculture Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-118.Google Scholar
  7. Fritts, H. P. 1976. Tree rings and climate. Academic Press, London, 567 pp.Google Scholar
  8. Harcombe, P. A. 1986. Stand development in a 130-year-old spruce-hemlock forest based on age structure and 50 years of mortality data.Forest Ecology and Management 14:41–58.Google Scholar
  9. Hett, J. M. 1971. Land use changes in east Tennessee and a simulation model which describes these changes for three counties. ORNL IBP-71-8. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.Google Scholar
  10. Hileman, B. 1984. Acid rain meeting in Ottawa.Environmental Science and Technology 18:157.Google Scholar
  11. Johnson, D. W., R. I. van Hook, and A. L. Ragan. 1987. Biogeochemical cycling in Walker Branch watershed: a synthesis of research results. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  12. Kitchings, J. T., and L. K. Mann. 1976. A description of the terrestrial ecology of the Oak Ridge Environmental Research Park. ORNL/TM-5073. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 58 pp.Google Scholar
  13. Likens, G. E. 1985. An experimental approach for the study of ecosystems.Journal of Ecology 73:381–396.Google Scholar
  14. Long, J. N., and J. Turner. 1975. Aboveground biomass of understory and overstory in an age sequence of four Douglas-fir stands.Journal of Applied Ecology 12:179–188.Google Scholar
  15. McLaughlin, S. B. 1985. Effects of air pollution on forests: A critical review.Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association 35(5):512–534.Google Scholar
  16. Oliver, C. D. 1981. Forest development in North America following major disturbances.Forest Ecology and Management 3:153–168.Google Scholar
  17. Oliver, C. D., and E. P. Stephens. 1977. Reconstruction of a mixed-species forest in central New England.Ecology 58:562–572.Google Scholar
  18. Pastor, J., and W. M. Post. 1986. Influence of climate, soil moisture, and succession on forest carbon and nitrogen cycles.Biogeochemistry 2:3–17.Google Scholar
  19. Plochmann, R. 1984. Air pollution and dying forests of Europe.American Forests 90:17.Google Scholar
  20. Pyle, C. 1985. Vegetation disturbance history of Great Smoky Mountains National Park: an analysis of archival maps and records. National Park Service Research/Resources Management Report SER-77.Google Scholar
  21. Runkle, J. R. 1982. Patterns of disturbance in some oldgrowth mesic forests of eastern North America.Ecology 63:1533–1546.Google Scholar
  22. Siccama, T. G., M. Bliss, and H. W. Vogelmann. 1982. Decline of red spruce in the Green Mountains of Vermont.Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 109:163.Google Scholar
  23. Shugart, H. H. 1984. A theory of forest dynamics. Springer Verlag, New York, 278 pp.Google Scholar
  24. Shugart, H. H. and D. C. West. 1977. Development of an Appalachian deciduous forest succession model and its application to assessment of the impact of the chestnut blight.Journal of Environmental Management 5:161–179.Google Scholar
  25. Sollins, P., D. E. Reichle, and J. S. Olson. 1973. Organic matter budget and model for a southern Appalachian Liriodendron forest. EDFB/IBP-73/2. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.Google Scholar
  26. Solomon, A. M., M. L. Tharp, D. C. West, G. E. Taylor, J. W. Webb, and J. L. Trimble. 1984. Response of unmanaged forests to CO2-induced climate change: available information, initial tests and data requirements. NBB-0053 Department of Energy, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  27. Thornthwaite, C. W., and J. R. Mather. 1957. Instructions and tables for computing potential evapotranspiration and water balance.Publications in Climatology 10:183–311.Google Scholar
  28. Wierman, C. A., and C. D. Oliver. 1979. Crown stratification by species in even-aged Douglas-fir/western hemlock stands of coastal Washington.Canadian Journal of Forest Research 9:1–9.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Virginia H. Dale
    • 1
  • Thomas W. Doyle
    • 1
  1. 1.Oak Ridge National LaboratoryEnvironmental Sciences DivisionOak RidgeUSA

Personalised recommendations