In order to reconcile the need for conserving and improving neglected Mediterranean upland ecosystems with socio-economic advancement, new concepts of integrated landscape management are required. For this purpose a mode of a closely interwoven network of multiple land-use patterns is suggested, based on vegetation management and manipulation of the soil-plant-animal complex and on multi-purpose environmental landscaping and afforestation. The latter is essential for revegetation of denuded slopes and for fire protection and buffer zones, and is aimed at the creation of semi-natural, multi-layered forests, parks and woodlands. From these, highest overall multiple use benefits can be expected for environmental and watershed protection, resistance to fire hazard, biotic diversity and wildlife, recreation amenity., and plant and animal production.
For optimization and dynamic land-use planning such relative values of multiple use benefits should be expressed in quantitative data and applied in dynamic planning of multiple use strategies, which could be tested first in combined research and demonstration schemes.