This paper describes a rather unique agroforestry approach of integrating animals (sheep, poultry and bees) in smallholder rubber plantations. The approach is based on the existence of surplus family labour, utilization of interspaces between the rows of rubber, availability of cheap and nutritious animal feed and presence of favourable microclimate for animal growth under rubber. Results of trials carried out by the Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia since the 1970's are presented.
Rotational system of broiler production under rubber was found to be technically, socially and economically feasible, providing a net return on family labour of M$370–M$825 per consignment of rearing 500 birds. Sheep rearing under rubber also appeared to be very attractive and practical; apart from producing meat for sale it also served as a ‘biological weed control’ measure. Cost of controlling the weeds commonly found under rubber plantations could be reduced by about 21% over the usual method by using sheep grazing for weed control. The Internal Rate of Return (IRR) from sheep rearing can be as high as 44%. Details of operation and management aspects of sheep integration under rubber are given.
Bees kept under rubber feed on nectar produced by inflorescence and tips of young rubber shoots and also on flowers of intercrops and weeds. TheApis cerana species was found to be suitable producing about 3 kg of honey per colony per harvest.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Ani A, Tajuddin I. and Chong DT (1985) Sheep rearing under rubber. Conf Malaysia Soc Anim Prod, Serdang, 1985. (Preprint)Google Scholar
- Lee KA, Ng LH and Goh CL (1978) Economics of poultry rearing under rubber. Proc Sem Integr Anim P1 Crops, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, 1978, 230Google Scholar
- Leong KH (1984) Ministry of Primary Industries, Malaysia. (Unpublished)Google Scholar
- Lim HH, Wan Mohamed WE and Muslim AB (1983) Ternakan biri-biri di Kampong Awah. Siaran Pekebun, Bil 87, 9. (In ‘Bahasa Malaysia’)Google Scholar
- Lowe JS (1968) Sheep under rubber. Rubb Res Inst Malaysia Plrs' Bull No 98, 141Google Scholar
- Mohd Ali S, Abu Bakar A and Abdul Malek Y (1984) Potensi penghasilan madu lebah di kawasan tanaman getah sebagai hasil sampingan. Sairan Pekebun Bil 93, 62. (In ‘Bahasa Malaysia’)Google Scholar
- Rubber Statistic Handbook Malaysia (1982) Dept of Stat Malaysia, Kuala LumpurGoogle Scholar
- Selvadurai (1970) Census of agriculture 1960, Preliminary Report No 64. Rubberland: area and production. Kuala Lumpur: The Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives, MalaysiaGoogle Scholar
- Tan KH, Abraham PD and Abdul Samat MS (1980) Goat rearing under rubber. Paper presented at Annual Conf of Malaysia Vet Ass, Kuala Lumpur, 1980Google Scholar
- Tan KH and Abraham PD (1981) Sheep rearing in rubber plantations. Proc Rubb Res Inst Malaysia Plrs' Conf Kuala Lumpur 1981, 163Google Scholar
- Wan Mansor WS and Tan KH (1980) Viability of sheep rearing under rubber. Proc Conf Animal Prod and Health in the Tropics 1980, 333Google Scholar
- Wan Mohamed WE and Abraham PD (1976) Potential of livestock production in rubber smallholding. Natn Livestock Symp MARA Inst Tech, Shah Alam, Malaysia 1976 (Preprint)Google Scholar
- Wan Mohamed WE and Chee YK (1976) Maximising returns in immature rubber small-holdings. Proc Rubb Res Inst Malaysia Prs' Conf Kuala Lumpur 1976, 34Google Scholar
- Wan Mohamed WE (1977) Utilization of ground vegetation in rubber plantation for animal rearing. Proc Rubber Res Inst Malaysia Plrs' Conf Kuala Lumpur 1977, 265–281Google Scholar
- Wan Mohamed WE (1978) The concept and potential of integrated farming. Proc Sem Integr Anim P1 Crops, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia 1978, 49Google Scholar
- Wan Mohamed WE (1982) Animal production in rubber plantation — A Review. Food and Agric Asian Livestock. Asian Pacific Region VII (10), 89Google Scholar
- Wan Mohamed WE and Ahmad Hamidy MZ (1983) Performance of Dorset Horn Crossbreds under rubber. Proc Rubb Res Inst Malaysia Plrs' Conf Kuala Lumpur 1983, 235Google Scholar