Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 5, Issue 2, pp 105–113

Risk factors for renal cell carcinoma in Denmark. I. Role of socioeconomic status, tobacco use, beverages, and family history

  • Anders Mellemgaard
  • Gerda Engholm
  • Joseph K. McLaughlin
  • Jorgen H. Olsen
Research Papers

DOI: 10.1007/BF01830256

Cite this article as:
Mellemgaard, A., Engholm, G., McLaughlin, J.K. et al. Cancer Causes Control (1994) 5: 105. doi:10.1007/BF01830256

Abstract

Risk factors for renal cell carcinoma were examined in a population based case-control study in Denmark. A total of 368 cases and 396 age- and gender-matched controls were interviewed in their homes. Increased risk was associated with low socioeconomic status. For men, an increasing risk with decreasing socioeconomic status was seen (odds ratio [OR]=2.2, 95 percent confidence interval [CI]=1.0–4.6 for men in the lowest socioeconomic stratumcf the highest). For women, the risk was lower in the highest socioeconomic stratum compared with the rest (OR=2.4, CI=0.9–5.9 for the lowest stratacf the highest). Cigarette smoking was a risk factor in men with an OR=2.3 (CI=1.1–5.1) for cigarette smokers with a total consumption of more than 40 pack-years compared with nonsmokers. Family history of kidney cancer was associated with an increased risk in both genders (for men, OR=4.1, CI=1.1–14.9; for women, OR=4.8, CI=1.0–23). Observations were inconsistent regarding coffee and alcohol consumption, and we found no association with tea drinking. The association with socioeconomic status remained after adjustment for other factors.

Key words

Alcohol coffee Denmark family history renal cell carcinoma socioeconomic status tea tobacco 

Copyright information

© Rapid Communications of Oxford Ltd 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anders Mellemgaard
    • 1
  • Gerda Engholm
    • 1
  • Joseph K. McLaughlin
    • 2
  • Jorgen H. Olsen
    • 1
  1. 1.Division for Cancer EpidemiologyDanish Cancer SocietyCopenhagenDenmark
  2. 2.Division of Cancer Etiology, Biostatistics BranchNational Cancer InstituteBethesdaUSA

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