Geologische Rundschau

, Volume 74, Issue 2, pp 181–213 | Cite as

Die Alpiden und die Kimmeriden: Die verdoppelte Geschichte der Tethys

  • A. M. Celâl Şengör
Article

Zusammenfassung

Das Alpen-Himalaja-System besteht, zwischen den Karpaten und der pazifischen Küste Asiens, aus zwei voneinander unabhängigen, aber einander weitgehend überlagernden orogenen Komplexen. Der hier Kimmeriden genannte ältere Komplex ist durch die Destruktion der Paläo-Tethys, des ursprünglichen, sich nach Osten erweiternden Pangäagolfes zwischen Laurasien und dem Kimmerischen Kontinent in einem Intervall zwischen dem Unterkarbon und Unterkreide entstanden. In seiner Geschichte sind auch die kontinentalen Blöcke von Nord- und Südchina und Annamia sowie eine Anzahl von viel kleineren Fragmenten beteiligt gewesen. Der jüngere, hier als Alpiden bezeichnet, ist durch die Subduktion der Neo-Tethys und örtliche Kollision verschiedener Teile des zersplitterten Gondwana-Landes mit Eurasien zwischen dem Oberjura und der Gegenwart zustandegekommen. Wo die ursprüngliche Breite des Kimmerischen Zwischenkontinents klein war, besteht heute eine fast vollständige Überlagerung der Kimmeriden durch die Alpiden, wobei die Erkennung der ersteren sehr erschwert ist. In Regionen, wo bedeutende Kontinentalstücke zwischen den beiden Orogenkomplexen vorkommen, sind sie leicht voneinander unterscheidbar. Die Kimmeriden enthalten ein geflochtenes Narbennetz, entlang welchem Ozeanschließung zu verschiedenen Zeiten stattfand. Die kimmeridischen Kollisionen haben auch ein ausgedehntes kratonisches Deformationsfeld zwischen dem Dnjepr-Donetz-Becken südöstlich Europas und dem östlichen Sibirien ins Leben gerufen, das durch Horizontalverschiebungen, Zerrungs- und Pressungsbecken und »Inversionen« verschiedenen Stils gekennzeichnet ist. Einige dieser Strukturen waren posthum in bezug auf ältere und viele haben die Platznahme späterer Strukturen der Alpiden stark beeinflußt. Diese Sachlage hat den Anschein langlebiger bodenständiger Strukturen erzeugt, was in der Tat der Ausdruck verschiedener, voneinander ganz unabhängiger, aber gleichorientierter Verformungsfelder zu sein scheint und mit den Strukturen selbst nicht viel zu tun hat. Die Kimmeriden scheinen gewaltige »orogenic Collages« zu enthalten und viel komplizierter als die Alpiden zu sein. Diese orogenen Collages enthalten viele exotische Blöcke panthalassischer Herkunft und große Areale von Akkretionskomplexen auf ozeanischem Boden, wie derjenige des Songpan-Ganzi-Systems in China. Die Erkennung einer »verdoppelten« Geschichte der Tethys führt uns zu einem verbesserten Verständnis der Tektonik nicht nur des Tethysraumes, sondern ganz Eurasiens.

Abstract

The Alpme-Himalayan-System consists, between the Carpathians and the Asiatic shores of the Pacific, of two independent, but largely superimposed orogenic complexes. The older complex, here called theCimmerides, formed between the early Carboniferous and the early Cretaceous by the destruction of Palaeo-Tethys, the original, eastwards-widening gulf of Pangaea between Laurasia and the Cimmerian Continent. The continental blocks of North and South China and Annamia, as well as a number of much smaller fragments also participated in its history. The younger one, here designated theAlpides, formed between the late Jurassic and the present by subduction of Neo-Tethys and, locally, by the collision with Eurasia of various fragments of the dispersed Gondwana-Land. Where the original width of the Cimmerian Continent had been small, the superposition of the Cimmerides by the Alpides was nearly complete and the recognition now of the former is therefore very difficult. In regions, where the width of continental pieces lying between the two orogenic complexes is large, both can be distinguished easily. The Cimmerides contain a multi-strand suture network along which ocean closure occured at different times. Cimmeride collisions also generated a vast field of cratonic deformations between the Dnyepr-Donets basin in southeastern Europe and eastern Siberia that is characterised by strike-slip faults, both extensional and compressional basins, and various kinds of >inversion< structures. Some of these structures nucleated on older ones and many also localised the later Alpide structures. This has given the impression of the existence of >autochthonous<, long-lived structures, although every >reactivation< event was the result of entirely independent but similarly-orientated strain fields whose origins had little to do with the structures themselves. The Cimmerides seem to be a more complicated orogenic system than the Alpides, involving large >orogenic collages< probably containing numerous exotic blocks of Panthalassan origin and large areas of accretionary complexes on oceanic substratum, such as that of Songpan-Ganzi of China. The recognition of a >double< history of Tethys leads to a better understanding of the tectonics not only of the Tethyan area, but also of entire Eurasia.

Résumé

Le système Alpes-Himalaya se compose, entre les Car-pathes et la côte pacifique de l'Asie, de deux complexes orogéniques indépendants l'un de l'autre, mais largement superposés l'un à l'autre. Le plus ancien complexe, appelé ici lesCimmérides, s'estformé entre le Carbonifère inférieur et le Crétacé inférieur lors de la disparition de la Paléo-Téthys, c'est-à-dire du golf équatorial Permo-Triassique de la Pangée compris entre la Laurasie et le Continent Cimmérien. Dans ce développement sont également impliqués les blocs continentaux de la Chine septentrionale, de la Chine méridionale, de l'Annamia, ainsi qu'un certain nombre de fragments beaucoup plus petits. Par ailleurs, le complexe plus récent, appelé ici lesAlpides, s'est formé entre le Jurassique supérieur et la période actuelle par la subduction de la Néo-Téthys et des collisions locales de morceaux épars du continent de Gondwana avec l'Eurasie. Là où la largeur initiale du continent cimmérien était faible, on trouve aujourd'hui une superposition complète des deux complexes orogéniques, ce qui rend très difficile la mise en évidence du système le plus ancien. Au contraire, là où des blocs continentaux importants séparent les deux orogènes, leur distinction est facile. Les Cimmérides sont caractérisées par un réseau de sutures multiples, témoin des fermetures océaniques qui se sont produites à différentes époques. Les collisions cimmérides ont également donné lieu à un vaste champ de déformations cratoniques entre le bassin du Dnieper-Donetz (Europe du Sud-Est) et la Sibérie orientale. Ces déformations consistent en décrochements, en bassins d'extension ou de compression et en inversions de divers styles. Certaines de ces structures ont pris naissance de manière posthume sur des structures antérieures, et bon nombre d'entre elles ont à leur tour influencé la localisation des structures des Alpides. Cet état de choses a pu faire croire à l'existence de structures »autochtones« jouant pendant de longues durées; en fait leurs réactivations sont l'efet de champs de déformations successifs, indépendants. l'un de l'autre, mais d'orientation commune, et dont l'origine n'a pas grand chose à voir avec les structures elles-mêmes. Les Cimmérides semblent comporter de gigantesques »collages« orogéniques et, de ce fait, sont plus compliquées que les Alpides. Ces collages orogéniques contiennent beaucoup de blocs exotiques d'origine panthalassique et de grands domaines de complexes d'accrétion sur fond océanique, tel le système Songpan-Ganzi en Chine. La mise en évidence d'une double histoire de la Téthys conduit à une meilleure connaissance de la tectonique non seulement du domaine téthysien, mais aussi de toute l'Eurasie.

Краткое содержание

Система Альпы - Гимала и состоит в отрезке от Карпат до побережья Тихого о кеана из двух независ имых орогенных комплексо в, в значительной степ ени накладывающихся дру г на друга. Более древн ий комплекс, именуемый з десь киммерийскими структурами, появилс я при распаде Палеоте тиса, вследствие расширен ия на восток залива в П ангее между Лавразией и Ким мерийским материком в период от нижнего карбона до нижнего мела. Его разв итие захватывает также ма териковые блоки севе рного и южного Китая, Аннам и целый ряд более мелки х фрагментов. Более поз дний, молодой комплек с, именуемый здесь альп ийскими структурами, образовался в результате субдукц ии Неотетиса и местны х коллизий между разли чными частями распав шейся Гондваны и Евразией, н ачавшихся в верхней ю ре и продолжающихся до на шего времени. Там, где р азмеры киммерийского межко нтинента были невели ки, структуры его сегодн я почти полностью пер екрыты альпийскими структу рами и установить нал ичие первых очень затрудн ительно. Но в областях, где между обоими орог еновыми комплексами находились материки значительн ой величины, различат ь эти структуры не пред ставляет особенных трудностей. Коммерий ские структуры содер жат сложную систему швов, вдоль которых в разли чные геологические перио ды происходило закры тие океана. Коллизии в пер иод киммерийского складкообразования вызвали обширные деф ормации кратона между бассейном Днеп ра-Донца на юго-восток е Европы и восточной ча стью Сибири, проявляющиеся гориз онтальными смещения ми, растяжениями и сжати ями, а также “инверсия ми” различного типа. Неко торые из этих структу р появились в заключительной фаз е более раннего ороге неза, а другие повлияли на с троение позднейших структур при альпийс ком горообразовател ьном процессе. Такое развитие созда ло структуры, связанн ые, как кажется на первый взгляд, с данным ороге ном, но в действительност и являющиеся независ имыми, и только имеющими оди наковое направление их полей деформации. Киммерий ские структуры, кажется, содержат гиг антские «orogenic Collages» и их строение на много с ложнее альпийских ст руктур. В этих «orogenic Collages» находят мн ого чужеродных блоков панталасског о происхождения и большие ареалы аккре ционных комплексов н а дне океана, как напр, систе ма Songpan-Ganzi в Китае. Изучение истории Тет иса разрешает нам луч ше понять тектонику не т олько региона, в свое в ремя занимаемого Тетисом, но и всей Евра зии.

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© Ferdinand Enke Verlag Stuttgart 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. M. Celâl Şengör
    • 1
  1. 1.I. T. Ü. Maden FakültesiTesvikiye IstanbulTürkei

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