Advertisement

Journal of Molecular Evolution

, Volume 18, Issue 2, pp 73–91 | Cite as

Structural characteristics of genome organization in amphibians: Differential staining of chromosomes and DNA structure

  • Vadim J. Birstein
Article

Summary

Differential staining patterns on amphibian chromosomes are in some respects distinct from those on mammalian chromosomes; C-bands are best obtained, whereas G- and Q-bands are either unobtainable (on anuran chromosomes) or coincide with C-bands (chromosomes of urodeles). In amphibians, rRNA genes are located at secondary constrictions, but in urodeles they are also found at other chromosome sites, the positions of these sites being strictly heritable. DNA content in amphibian cells is tens and hundreds times higher than in mammals. DNA contents in anurans and urodeles differ within certain limits: from 2 to 25 pg/N and from 30 to over 160 pg/N respectively. Species characterized by slow morphogenesis have larger genomes. Genome growth is normally due to an increase in the amount of repetitive DNA (mostly intermediate repetitive sequences), the amount of unique sequences being almost constant (11 pg/genome in urodeles, and 1.5 pg/genome in anurans). In anurans in general no satellite DNA was found, whereas such fractions were found in manyUrodela species. Nucleosome chromatin structure in amphibians is identical to that of other eukariotes. It is postulated that differences in chromosome banding between amphibians and mammals are due to differences in chromatin packing which in turn is related to the distinct organization of DNA repetitive sequences. It is likely that fish chromosomes have a similiar structure. A comparison of such properties as the chromosome banding patterns, variations in nuclear DNA content and some genome characteristics enable us to group fishes and amphibians together as regards chromosome structure, as distinct from amniotes - reptiles, birds and mammals. It is probable that in the ancient amphibians - ancestors of reptiles - chromatin packing underwent a radical transformation, following changes in the organization of DNA repetitive sequences.

Keywords

Chromosome Banding Group Fish Secondary Constriction Differential Staining Chromosome Site 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abe S, Muramoto J (1974) Proc Jpn Acad 50:507–511Google Scholar
  2. Adolph K W, Cheng S M, Laemmli U K (1977) Cell 12:805–816PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Aleksandrovskaya T O, Birstein V J, Mazin A L (1979) Zool Zh 58:1365–1373Google Scholar
  4. Arnheim N, Southern E M (1977) Cell 11:363–370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Arthur R R, Straus N A (1978) Can J Biochem 56:257–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Ashmarin I P, Kalyshentseva Yu E, Konarev V G, Sidorova V V, Fedorova N A (1975) Zh Evol Biokhim Fiziol 11:515–519PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Ashmarin I P, Fedorova N A, Kalyshentseva Yu E (1976) Zh Evol Biokhim Fiziol 12:367–369PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bachmann K, Blommers-Schlösser R (1975) Zool Anz 194:13–31Google Scholar
  9. Bachmann K, Nishioka M (1978) Copeia N 2:225–229Google Scholar
  10. Badaev N S, Borisov Yu M, Zelenin A V, Iordansky A B, Pankova N A (1974) Tsitologia 16:1030–1032Google Scholar
  11. Bailly S (1972) C R Acad Sci D275:1267–1269Google Scholar
  12. Bailly S (1976) Chromosoma 54:61–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bailly S (1977) Biol Cell 30:3aGoogle Scholar
  14. Bailly S (1979) C R Acad Sci D288:105–108Google Scholar
  15. Bailly S, Guillemin C, Labrousse M (1973) C R Acad Sci 276:1867–1869Google Scholar
  16. Baldari C T, Amaldi F (1976) Chromosoma 59:13–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Baldari C T, Amaldi F (1977) Chromosoma 61:359–368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Barsacchi G, Gall J G (1972) J Cell Biol 54:580–591PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Barsacchi-Pilone G, Nardi I, Andronico F, Batistoni R, Durante M (1977) Chromosoma 63:127–134Google Scholar
  20. Barsacchi-Pilone G, Nardi I, Batistoni R, Andronico F, Beccari E (1974) Chromosoma 49:135–153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Barshene Ya V (1978) Genetica 14:2029–2036Google Scholar
  22. Basu S (1977) Biopolymers 16:2315–2328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Batistoni R, Andronico F, Nardi I, Barsacchi-Pilone G (1978) Chromosoma 65:231–240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Batistoni R, Nardi I, Pilone G B (1974) Chromosoma 49:121–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Beçak M L, Fukuda K (1979) Experimentia 35:24–26Google Scholar
  26. Beçak M L, Fukuda K, Carneiro S M (1977) Experientia 33:1314–1316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Beck M L, Mahan J T (1979) Copeia 341Google Scholar
  28. Bianchi N O, Bianchi M A, Matayoshi T (1977) Cytologia 42:425–432PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Bianchi N O, Bianchi M S, Vidal-Rioja L (1973) Caryologia 26, 39:397–403Google Scholar
  30. Bickham J W, Baker R J (1976) Chromosoma 54:201–219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Bird A P (1978) J Mol Biol 118:49–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Bird A P, Southern E M (1978) J Mol Biol 118:27–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Birnstiel M L, Spiers J, Purdom T F, Jones R, Loening U E (1968) Nature 219:454–463PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Birstein V J (1981a) Zool Zh 60:246–256Google Scholar
  35. Birstein V J (1981b) Tsitologia 23:396–403Google Scholar
  36. Bisbee C A, Baker M A, Wilson A C, Hadji-Azimi I, Fishberg M (1977) Science 195:785–787PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Blacker A W, Cassidy D M (1978) Dev Biol 63:224–232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Blin N, Stephenson E C, Stafford D W, (1976) Chromosoma 58:41–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Bols N C, Kasinsky H E, (1976) J Exp Zool 198:109–114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Boseley P, Moss T, Mächler M, Portmann R, Birnstiel M (1979) Cell 17:19–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Bozzoni T, Beccari E (1978) Biochem Biophys Acta 520:245–252PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Brown D D, Wensink P C, Jordan E (1971) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 68:3175–3179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Brown D D, Wensink P C, Jordan E (1972) J Mol Biol 63:57–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Brown D D, Sugimoto K (1973) J Mol Biol 78:397–415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Browne M J, Turnbull J F, Burdon R H (1976) Biochem Soc Trans 4:1130–1131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Bucci-Innocenti S, Lascialfari D, Ragghianti M, Mancino G (1978) Experientia 34:1002–1004PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Bulatova N Sh (1977) In: Hybrid and mutation cytogenetics and karyotype evolution. Novosibirsk “Nauka”:248–259Google Scholar
  48. Bull J (1978) Can J Genet Cytol 20:205–209Google Scholar
  49. Bull J J, Moon R G, Legler J M (1974) Cytogenet Cell Genet 13:419–425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Buongiorno-Nardelli M, Amaldi F, Beccari E, Junakovic N (1977) J Mol Biol 110:105–117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Burkholder G D (1975) Exp Cell Res 90:269–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Burkholder G D, Weaver M G (1977) Exp Cell Res 110:251–262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Byarnagaba W (1978) Chromosoma 67:275–283PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Cavalier-Smith T (1978) J Cell Sci 34:247–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Cherry L M, Case S M, Wilson A C (1978) Science 200:209–211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Cimino M C (1974) Chromosoma 47:297–307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Comings D E (1977) Chromosomes Today 6:19–26Google Scholar
  58. Comings D E, Avelino E, Okada T A, Wyandt H E (1973) Exp Cell Res 77:469–493PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Comings D E, Drets M E (1976) Chromosoma 56:199–211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Comings D E, Kovacs B W, Avelino F, Harris D C (1975) Chromosoma 50:111–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Comings D E, Okada T A (1975) Exp Cell Res 93:267–274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Davidson E H, Calan G A, Angerer R C, Britten R J (1975) Chromosoma 51:253–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Davidson E H, Hough B R (1971) J Mol Biol 56:491–506PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Davidson E H, Hough B R, Amenson C S, Britten R J (1973) J Mol Biol 77:1–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Denis H, Wegnez M (1977) Dev Biol 59:228–236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Dennis H, Wegnez M (1978) J Mol Evol 12:11–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Dev V G, Miller D A, Tantravahi R, Schreck K R, Roderick T H, Erlanger B F, Miller O J (1975) Chromosoma 53:335–344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Donna A, Gorovsky M A (1975) J Cell Biol 64:389–397PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Dutrillaux B, Lejeune J (1975) Adv Hum Genet 5:119–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Dutrillaux B, Rethore M O, Lejeune J (1975) Ann Génét 18:153–161Google Scholar
  71. Ebeling A W, Atkin N B, Setzer P Y (1971) Am Nat 105:549–561Google Scholar
  72. Eden F C, Hendrick J P, Gottlieb S S (1978) Biochemistry 17:5113–5121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Edwards L J, Hnilica L S (1968) Experientia 24:228–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Epplen J T, Diedrich U, Wagenmann M, Schmidtke J, Engel W (1979) Chromosoma 75:199–214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Epplen J T, Leipoldt M, Engel W, Schmidtke J (1978) Chromosoma 69:307–321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Evans H J, Buckland R A, Sumner A T (1973) Chromosoma 42:383–402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Fedoroff N (1979) Cell 16:697–710PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Fedoroff N V, Brown D D (1978) Cell 13:701–716PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Ford P J, Brown R E (1976) Cell 8:485–493PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Ford P J, Mathieson T (1978) Eur J Biochem 87:199–214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Foucrier J, Chalmneau M Th, Boffa G A (1976) Comp Biochem Physiol 53B:555–559Google Scholar
  82. Frado L L Y, Annunziato A T, Woodcock C L F (1977) Biochim Biophys Acta 475:514–520PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Fredga K (1977) Proc R Soc Lond B 199:377–3971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Freed J J (1975-1976) Inst Cancer Res 21st Sci Rep 136–137Google Scholar
  85. Freed J J (1977) In Vitro 13:200Google Scholar
  86. Funaki K, Matsui S, Sasaki M (1975) Chromosoma 49:357–370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Gaubatz J, Prashas N, Cutler R G (1976) Biochem Biophys Acta 418:358–375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Georgiev G P, Bakaev V V (1978) Mol Biol 12:1205–1230Google Scholar
  89. Gerbi S (1976) J Mol Biol 106:791–816PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Ginatulin A A, Ginatulina L K, Vorontsov N N, Timofeeva M Ya (1979) Dokl AN SSSR 244:1018–1021Google Scholar
  91. Goin O B, Goin C J, Bachmann K (1968) Copeia N 3:533–540Google Scholar
  92. Goodpasture C, Bloom S E (1975) Chromosoma 53:37–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Gormley I P, Ross A (1976) Exp Cell Res 98:152–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Graphodatsky A S, Grigoriev O V, Isaenko A A (1978) Zool Zh 57:1279–1280Google Scholar
  95. Graphodatsky A S, Grigoriev O V, Isaenko A A (1979) Zool Zh 58:1074–1076Google Scholar
  96. Greilhuber J (1977) Theor Appl Genet 50:121–124Google Scholar
  97. Hatch F T, Bodner A J, Mazrimas J A, Moore D H (1976) Chromosoma 58:155–168PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Hatlin L E, Attardi G (1971) J Mol Biol 56:535–553PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Helleiner C W, Huh T Y, Sangater S M (1974) Comp Biochem Physiol 48B:11–24Google Scholar
  100. Henderson A S, Atwood K C, Yu M T, Wartburton D (1976) Chromosoma 56:29–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Henderson A S, Wartburton D, Atwood K C (1975) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 71:3394–3398Google Scholar
  102. Hennen S, Mizuno S, Macgregor H C (1975) Chromosoma 50:349–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Heppich S (1978) Z Zool Syst Evolutionsforsch 16:27–39Google Scholar
  104. Hinegardner R (1976) In: Molecular Evolution Ayala F J (ed), Sinauer Assoc Inc Mass, pp 179–199Google Scholar
  105. Hinegardner R, Rosen D (1972) Am Nat 106:621Google Scholar
  106. Holmquist G (1975) Nature 257:503–506PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Holmquist G (1979) Chromosoma 72:203–224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Holmquist G P, Comings D E (1976) Science:599-602Google Scholar
  109. Howell W M (1977) Chromosoma 62:361–367PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Howell W M, Bloom S E (1973) Nature 245:261–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Hsu T C, Spirito S S, Pardue M L (1975) Chromosoma 53:25–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Humphries S E, Young D, Carroll D (1979) Biochemistry 18:3223–3231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Hutchinson N, Pardue M L (1975) Chromosoma 53:51–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Imoh H (1977) Exp Cell Res 108:57–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Jacq C, Miller J R, Brownlee G G (1977) Cell 12:109–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Jeppesen P G N, Banhier A T, Saunders L (1978) Exp Cell Res 115:293–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Jiménez de E S, Gonzalez J L, Domingez J L, Saloma E S (1974) Eur J Biochem 45:25–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Jones K W (1978) Z Morph Anthrop 69:143–171Google Scholar
  119. Jorgensen K F, Saude van de J H, Lin C C (1978) Chromosoma 68:287–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Kasinsky H E, Huang S Y, Kwank S, Mann M, Sweeney M A J, Yee B (1978) J Exp Zool 203:109–126Google Scholar
  121. Kezer J, Sessions S (1979) Chromosoma 71:65–80Google Scholar
  122. Khachaturov E N, Barsky V E, Galkina I G, Stonova N S, Maksimaldo Yu B (1975) Dokl Akad Nauk SSSR Ser Biol N 6:873–876Google Scholar
  123. Khan M S N, Maden B E H (1976) Nucleic Acids Res 4:2490–2506Google Scholar
  124. Khan M S N, Salim M, Maden B E H (1978) Biochem J 169:531–542PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. King M, Rofe R (1976) Chromosoma 54:75–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Kirpichnikov V S (1974) Usp Sovrem Biol 78:404–422PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Kligerman A D, Bloom S E (1977) Cytogenet Cell Genet 18:182–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Kornberg J R, Engels W R (1978) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 75:3382–3386PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Korochkin L I (1977) Interaction of genes in development. Moscow. “Nauka”, 248–255Google Scholar
  130. Krystal M, Arnheim N (1978) J Mol Biol 126:94–104Google Scholar
  131. Kupriyanova N S (1976) Repetitive nucleotide sequences in the genome of loach (Midgurnes fossilis L.) Cand ThGoogle Scholar
  132. Labrousse M, Guillemin C, Guillemin L (1972) C R Acad Sci 174:1063–1065Google Scholar
  133. León P E (1976) J Cell Biol 69:287–300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. León P E, Kezer J (1978) Chromosoma 65:213–230Google Scholar
  135. Lima-de-Faria A (1976) Hereditas 83:1–22Google Scholar
  136. Lind A Ya, Villems R L, Uuskula L S (1978) Usp Sovrem Biol 86:3–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Loening H E (1968) J Mol Biol 38:355–365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Lohr D, Corden J, Tatchell K, Kovacic R T, Van Holde K E (1977) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 74:79–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Luciani J M, Devictor M, Morazzani M R, Stahl A (1976) Chromosoma 57:155–163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Macaya J, Thiery J P, Bernardi G (1976) J Mol Biol 108:237–254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Macgregor H C (1978) Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B 283:309–318Google Scholar
  142. Macgregor H C (1979) Chromosoma 71:57–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Macgregor H C, Andrews C (1977) Chromosoma 63:109–126Google Scholar
  144. Macgregor H C, Horner H, Owen C A, Parker I (1973) Chromosoma 43:328–348Google Scholar
  145. Macgregor H C, Jones C (1977) Chromosoma 63:1–9Google Scholar
  146. Macgregor H C, Kezer J (1971) Chromosoma 33:167–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Macgregor H C, Kezer J (1973) Chromosoma 42:415–426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Macgregor H C, Mizuno S (1976) Chromosoma 54:15–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Macgregor H C, Mizuno S, Vlad M (1976) Chromosomes Today 5:332–339Google Scholar
  150. Mancino G, Ragghianti M, Bucci-Innocenti S (1977) In: “The reproductive Biology of Amphibians”, Taylor D H, Cuttman S I (eds), Plenum Press, New York London, pp 411–447Google Scholar
  151. Mancino G, Ragghianti M, Bucci-Innocenti S (1978) Chromosoma 69:27–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Mancino C, Ragghianti M, Innocenti S B (1973) Atti Accad Naz Lincei Rc Ser 8 55:559–564Google Scholar
  153. Matsui S (1974) Exp Cell Res 88:88–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Matsui S, Weinfeld H, Sandberg A A (1978) J Cell Biol 79:116aGoogle Scholar
  155. Mednikov B M, Shubina E A, Phillipovitch S Yu (1976) Biol Nauki N 9:21–26Google Scholar
  156. Melli M, Whitfield C, Rao K V, Richardson M, Bishop J O (1971) Nature (London) New Biol 231:8–12Google Scholar
  157. Meunier-Rotival M, Cortadas J, Macaya G, Bernardi G (1979) Nucleic Acid Res 6:2106–2123Google Scholar
  158. Miller J P, Cartwright E M, Brownlee G G, Fedoroff N V, Brown D D (1978) Cell 13:717–725PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Mitchell A R, Seuanez H N, Laurie S S, Martin D E, Gosden J R (1977) Chromosoma 61:345–358PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Mizuno S, Andrews Ch, Macgregor H C (1976) Chromosoma 58:1–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Mizuno S, Macgregor H C (1974) Chromosoma 48:239–296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Morescalchi A (1973) In: Cytotaxonomy and vertebrate evolution. Chiarelli A B, Capanna E (eds), Academic Press, London, New York, pp 233–348Google Scholar
  163. Morescalchi A (1977) Boll Zool 44:287–294Google Scholar
  164. Morescalchi A, Odierna G, Olmo E (1977) Experientia 33:1579–1581Google Scholar
  165. Morescalchi A, Serra V (1974) Experientia 30:487–489PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Morgan G T (1978) Chromosoma 66:269–280Google Scholar
  167. Moss T, Boseley P G, Portmann R, Birnstiel M L (1979) Experientia 35:972Google Scholar
  168. Nadler C F, Hoffmann R S, Woolf A (1974) Experientia 30:744–746PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Nardi I, Barsacchi-Pilone G, Batistoni R, Andronico F (1977) Chromosoma 64:67–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Nardi I, Lucchini S de, Barsacchi-Pilone G, Andronico F (1978) Chromosoma 70:91–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Nardi I, Ragghianti M, Mancino G (1972) Chromosoma 37:1–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Nardi I, Ragghianti M, Mancino G (1973) Chromosoma 40:321–331PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Nazar R N, Roy R K, (1976) FEBS Lett 72:111–116Google Scholar
  174. Obara Y, Kogame K, Saito K (1975) CIS N 18:15–17Google Scholar
  175. Okada T A, Comings D E (1974) Chromosoma 48:65–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Okada T A, Comings D E (1979) Chromosoma 72:1–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Olmo E (1973) Caryologia 26:43–68Google Scholar
  178. Olmo E, Morescalchi A (1978) Experientia 34:44–46Google Scholar
  179. Pardue M L (1974) Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 38:475–482PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Pardue M L, Brown D D, Birnstiel M L (1973) Chromosoma 42:191–193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Parker C S, Roeder R G (1977) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 74:44–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Paulson J R, Laemmli U K (1977) Cell 12:817–828PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Pedersen R A (1971) J Exp Zool 177:65–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Perlman S, Phillips C, Bishop J O (1976) Cell 8:33–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Perry R P, Cheng T Y, Freed J J, Greenberg J R, Kelley D E, Tartof K D (1970) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 65:609–616PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Pierpoint M E, Yunis J J (1977) Exp Cell Res 106:303–308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Prager E M, Brush A H, Nolan R A, Nakanishi M, Wilson A C (1974) J Mol Evol 3:243–262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Pukkila P J (1975) Chromosoma 53:71–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Ragghianti M, Bucci-Innocenti S, Mancino G (1977) Experientia 33:1319–1321Google Scholar
  190. Ragghianti M, Bucci-Innocenti S, Mancino G (1978) Caryologia 31:243–256Google Scholar
  191. Ragghianti M, Bucci-Innocenti S, Mancino G (1980) Chromosoma 77:333–345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Ragghianti M, Innocenti S, Mancino G (1974) Atti Accad Naz Lincei Rc Ser 8 55:764–770Google Scholar
  193. Raicu P, Geormâneanu C (1977) J Hered 68:343–344Google Scholar
  194. Reeder R H, Roeder R G (1972) J Mol Biol 67:433–441PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Reeves R (1977) Eur J Biochem 75:545–560PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Resley M S, Eckhardt R A (1974) J Cell Biol 63:286Google Scholar
  197. Rogers M E, Klein G (1972) Biochem J 130:281–288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Rosbash H, Ford P J, Bishop J O (1974) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 71:3746–3750PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Rudak E, Callan H G (1976) Chromosoma 56:349–362Google Scholar
  200. Rungger D, Crippa M (1977) Prog Biophys Mol Biol 31:247–269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Ruiz I R C, Beçak W (1976) Chromosoma 54:69–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Sakima K, Kominami R, Muramatsu M (1976) Eur J Biochem 63:339–350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Salthe S N, Kaplan N O (1966) Evolution 20:603Google Scholar
  204. Schmid M (1978a) Chromosoma 66:361–368Google Scholar
  205. Schmid M (1978b) Chromosoma 68:131–148Google Scholar
  206. Schmid M (1979) Chromosoma 75:215–234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Schmid M (1980) Chromosoma 77:83–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Schmid M, Krone W (1976) Chromosoma 56:327–347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Schmid M, Olert J, Klett C (1979) Chromosoma 71:29–55Google Scholar
  210. Schmidtke J, Schmitt F, Leipoldt M, Engel W (1979) Comp Biochem Physiol 64B:117–120Google Scholar
  211. Seligy V, Roy C, Dove M, Yaguchi M (1976) Biochim Biophys Res Commun 71:196–202Google Scholar
  212. Sheer U (1978) Cell 13:535–549PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Shepherd G W, Flickinger R (1979) Exp Cell Res 120:73–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Shields G F, Straus N A (1975) Evolution 29:159–166Google Scholar
  215. Sinclair J H, Brown D D (1971) Biochemistry 10:2761–2769PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Singh L, Purdom I F, Jones K W (1976) Chromosoma 59:43–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Singh L, Ray-Choudhuri S P (1975) Nucleus 18:163–166Google Scholar
  218. Sommerville J, Macolm D B, Callan H G (1976) Phil Trans R Soc Lond B 283:359–366Google Scholar
  219. Southern E M (1975) J Mol Biol 90:503–517Google Scholar
  220. Stambrook P J (1978) Chromosoma 65:153:159Google Scholar
  221. Steffensen D M (1977) Chromosomes Today 6:247–253Google Scholar
  222. Steffensen D M, Prensky W, Mutton D, Hamerton J L (1975) Cytogenet Cell Genet 14:434–438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Stefos K, Arrighi F E (1971) Exp Cell Res 68:228–232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Stefos K, Arrighi F E (1974) Exp Cell Res 83:9–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Stern R (1972) Carnegie Inst. of Washington, Yearbook 71, 22Google Scholar
  226. Stock A D, Arrighi F S, Stefos K (1974) Cytogenet Cell Genet 13:410–418PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Stock A D, Mengden G A (1975) Chromosoma 50:69–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Straus N A (1971) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 68:799–802PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Sueoka N (1961) J Mol Biol 3:31–40Google Scholar
  230. Szabo P, Lee M R, Elder F B, Prensky W (1978) Chromosoma 65:161–172Google Scholar
  231. Szarski H (1976) Int Rev Cytol 44:93–111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Takayama S (1976) Chromosoma 56:47–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Thiery J P, Macaya G, Bernardi G (1976) J Mol Biol 108:219–235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Thorgaard G H (1976) Cytogenet Cell Genet 17:174–184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Ullerich F H (1970) Chromosoma 30:1–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Van Holden P, Strickland W N, Brandt W F, Holt C van (1978) Biochim Biophys Acta 533:278–281PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Vlad M (1977) J Cell Sci 24:108–118Google Scholar
  238. Vlad M, Macgregor H C (1975) Chromosoma 50:327–347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Vladychenskaya N S, Kedrova O S, Antonov A S (1975) Biol Nauki N 7:105–110Google Scholar
  240. Vladychenskaya N S, Kedrova O S, Antonov A S (1976) Biol Nauki N 10:15–20Google Scholar
  241. Wallace D G, Wilson A C (1972) J Mol Evol 2:72–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Wang N, Shoffner R N (1974) Chromosoma 47:61–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Ward O G (1977) Can J Genet Cytol 19:51–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Wartburton D, Henderson A S, Atwood K C (1975) Chromosoma 51:35–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Wegnez M, Monier T, Denis H (1972) FEBS Letters 25:13–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Weisblum B, Haenssler E (1974) Chromosoma 46:255–260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Wellauer P K (1979) J Mol Biol 128:289–303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Wellauer P K, David I B, Brown D D, Reeder R H (1976) J Mol Biol 105:461–486PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Wellauer P K, David I B (1974) J Mol Biol 89:379–395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Wilson A C (1976) In: Molecular Evolution. Ayala F J (ed), Sinauer Assoc Inc Mass, pp 225–234Google Scholar
  251. Wilson A C, Sarich V M, Maxson L R (1974) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 71:3028–3030PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Wu F C, Elgin S C R, Hood L E (1975) J Mol Evol 5:87–101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Wurster-Hill D H, Gray C W (1976) Cytogenet Cell Genet 15:306–331Google Scholar
  254. Yunis J J, Kuo M T, Saunders G F (1977) Chromosoma 61:335–344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Yunis J J, Sawyer J R, Ball D W (1978) Chromosoma 67:293–307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. Zakharov A F (1977) Human Chromosomes: Problems of the Linear Organization. Moscow, Meditzina 128–174Google Scholar
  257. Zenzes M T, Voiculescu I (1973) Genetica 45:531–536Google Scholar
  258. Zuckerkandl E (1976) J Mol Evol 9:73–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Cuny G, Soriano P, Macaya G, Bernardi G (1981) Eur J Biochem 115:227–233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. Diaz M O, Barsacchi-Pilone G, Mahon K A, Gall J G (1981) Cell 24:649–659PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. Graham D E, Schanke K (1980) Nucleic Acids Res 8:3875–3894PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. Green D M, Daugherty C H, Bogart J P (1980) Herpetologica 36:346–352Google Scholar
  263. Hudson A, Cuny G, Cortadas J, Haschemeyer A E V, Bernardi G (1980) Eur J Biochem 112:203–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Manago J N, Spina F L, Beckert W H (1980) Cytologia 45:561–569PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. Mengden G A, Stock A D (1980) Chromosoma 79:53–64Google Scholar
  266. Ruiz I R G, Soma M, Becak W (1981) Cytogenet Cell Genet 29:84–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. Ryttman H, Tegelström H (1981) Hereditas 94:165–170Google Scholar
  268. Varley J M, Macgregor H C, Nardi I, Andrews C, Erba H P (1980) Chromosoma 80:289–307PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vadim J. Birstein
    • 1
  1. 1.A.N. Belozersky Laboratory of Bioorganic Chemistry and Molecular BiologyLomonosov State UniversityMoscowUSSR

Personalised recommendations