Acta Neurochirurgica

, Volume 55, Issue 1–2, pp 85–97 | Cite as

Chronic adult hydrocephalus due to uncommon causes

  • R. D. Lobato
  • E. Lamas
  • F. Cordobés
  • M. J. Muñoz
  • R. Roger


The authors report on four unusual cases of chronic adult hydrocephalus extracted from a large personal series of patients with hydrocephalic dementia. A syndrome resembling that of normal pressure hydrocephalus was due to the following aetiologies in these patients: Paget's disease of the skull, unruptured cerebral arteriovenous malformation, colloid cyst of the third ventricle, and cerebromeningeal cysticercosis. All these patients exhibited disturbances in cerebrospinal fluid dynamics at the time of study, and were considerably improved by CSF shunting. The value of the continuous CSF pressure monitoring and the constant infusion test in selecting patients with chronic hydrocephalus for shunt therapy is emphasized.


Hydrocephalus Paget's disease colloid cyst arteriovenous malformation cysticercosis intracranial pressure computed tomography 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Adams, R. D., Fisher, C. M., Hakim, S., Ojemann, R. G., Sweet, W. H., Symptomatic occult hydrocephalus with “normal” cerebrospinal fluid pressure. A treatable syndrome. N. Engl. J. Med.273 (1965), 117–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aleksic, S. N., George, A. E., Dementia and low-pressure hydrocephalus in a patient with pituitary adenoma. J. Neurol. Sci.19 (1973), 341–345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Aronson, S. M., Vascular malformations, in: Pathology of the Nervous System, Vol. 2 (Minckler, ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc. 1972.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bannister, R., Gilford, E., Kocen, R., Isotope encephalography in the diagnosis of dementia due to communicating hydrocephalus. Lancet2 (1967), 1014–1017.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Barnett, H. J. M., Some clinical features of intracranial aneurysms. Clin. Neurosurg.16 (1969), 43–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Batnitzky, S., Sarwar, M., Leeds, N. E., Colloid cysts of the third ventricle. Radiology112 (1974), 327–341.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Belloni, G., di Rocco, C., Focacci, C., Gally, G., Maira, G., Rossi, G. F., Surgical indications in normotensive hydrocephalus. A retrospective analysis of the relations of some diagnostic findings to the results of surgical treatment. Acta Neurochir. (Wien)33 (1976), 1–21.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bosch, D. A., Rähn, T., Backhand, E. O., Treatment of Colloid cysts of the third ventricle by stereotactic aspiration. Surg. Neurol.9 (1978), 15–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Breig, A., Ekbom, K., Greitz, T., Kugelberg, E., Hydrocephalus due to elongated basilar artery—a new clinicoradiological syndrome. Lancet1 (1967), 874–875.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chawla, J. C., Hulme, A., Cooper, R., Intracranial pressure in patients with dementia and communicating hydrocephalus. J. Neurosurg.40 (1974), 376–380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Culebras, A., Feldman, R., Fager, C., Hydrocephalus and dementia in Paget's disease of the skull. J. Neurol. Sci.23 (1974), 307–321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gruss, P., Kroiss, A., Gaab, M., Fuhrmeister, U., Long-term measurement of intraventricular pressure in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus, in: Advances in Neurosurgery 4, pp. 168–175 (Wüllenweber, R., Brock, M., Hamer, J., Klinger, M., Spoerri, O., eds.). Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: 1977.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    French, L. A., Seljeskog, E. L., Arteriovenous malformations of the brain, in: Neurological Surgery, pp. 827–836 (Youmans, J. R., ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders Co. 1973.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hakim, S., Adams, R. D., The special clinical problem of symptomatic hydrocephalus with normal cerebrospinal fluid pressure: Observations on cerebrospinal fluid hydrodynamics. J. Neurol. Sci.2 (1965), 307–327.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Isamat, F., Cisticercosis cerebral. Barcelona: Vergara S. A. 1957.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Katman, R., Normal pressure hydrocephalus, in: Dementia, pp. 69–92 (Wells, E., ed.). Philadelphia: FA Davis Co. 1977.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kelly, R., Colloid cysts of the third ventricle. Analysis of 29 cases. Brain74 (1951), 23–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lamas, E., Estevez, J., Soto, M., Obrador, S., Computerized axial tomography for the diagnosis of cerebral cysticercosis. Acta Neurochir. (Wien)44 (1978), 197–205.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lamas, E., Lobato, R. D., Intraventricular pressure and CSF dynamics in chronic adult hydrocephalus. Surg. Neurol.12 (1979), 287–295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lamas, E., Lobato, R. D., Esparza, J., Escudero, L., Dural posterior fossa AV malformation producing raised sagittal sinus pressure. Case report. J. Neurosurg.46 (1977), 804–810.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    LeMay, M., New, P. F. J., Radiological diagnosis of occult normal pressure hydrocephalus. Radiology96 (1970), 347–358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lewin, W., Preliminary observations on external hydrocephalus after severe head injury. Brit. J. Surg.55 (1968), 747–751.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Little, J. R., MacCarty, C. S., Colloid cysts of the third ventricle. J. Neurosurg.40 (1974), 230–235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lobato, R. D., Lamas, E., Esparza, J., Portillo, J. M., Rivas, J. J., Intraventricular pressure monitoring and CSF dynamics in non-tumor aqueductal stenosis, in: Intracranial Pressure IV, pp. 511–514 (Shulman, K., Marmarou, A., Miller, J. D., Becker, D. P., eds.). Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer. 1980.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lundberg, N., Continuous recording and control of ventricular fluid pressure in neurosurgical practice. Acta Psychiat. Scand., Suppl.149 (1960), 1–193.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Obrador, S., Cysticercosis cerebri. Acta Neurochir. (Wien)10 (1962), 320–364.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ojemann, R. G., Normal pressure hydrocephalus. Clin. Neurosurg.18 (1971), 337–370.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ojemann, R. G., Fisher, C. M., Adams, R. D., Sweet, W. H., New, P. F. J., Further experience with the syndrome of “normal” pressure hydrocephalus. J. Neurosurg.31 (1969), 279–294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Olivecrona, H., Riives, J., Arteriovenous malformations of the brain. Their diagnosis and treatment. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat.59 (1948), 567–602.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Pedersen, K. K., Sorensen, P. S., Ankerhuss, J., Danielsen, U. T., Syphilitic normal pressure hydrocephalus. Acta Neurochir. (Wien)48 (1979), 35–39.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Simms, N. M., Maxwell, R. E., Christenson, P. C., French, L. A., Internal hydrocephalus secondary to cysticercosis cerebri: Treatment with a ventriculoatrial shunt. J. Neurosurg.30 (1969), 305–309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Symon, L., Dorsch, N. W. C., Use of long-term intracranial pressure measurement to asses hydrocephalic patients prior to shunt surgery. J. Neurosurg.42 (1975), 258–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Theander, S., Granholm, L., Sequelae after spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage with special reference to hydrocephalus and Korsakoff's syndrome. Acta Neurol. Scand.43 (1967), 479–488.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Tolosa, E., Cysticercose cérébral. Aspects cliniques et possibilités thérapeutique. Rev. Neurol.90 (1954), 187–208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wilkinson, H. A., LeMay, M., Drew, J. H., Adult aqueductal stenosis. Arch. Neurol.15 (1966), 643–648.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. D. Lobato
    • 1
  • E. Lamas
    • 1
  • F. Cordobés
    • 1
  • M. J. Muñoz
    • 1
  • R. Roger
    • 1
  1. 1.Departments of Neurosurgery and NeuroradiologyCiudad Sanitaria “1∘ de Octubre” and Faculty of MedicineMadridSpain

Personalised recommendations