Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

The fall of marital fertility in nineteenth-century France: Exemplar or exception? (Part II)

La baisse de la fécondité légitime, en France, au XIXe siècle : archétype ou exception ? (II)

Abstract

The first part of this two-part article, concentrating on the fall of fertility at national level, was published in the preceding issue of this journal. Here in Part II, regional data are used to test the homogeneity of French demographic history in the nineteenth century. Was the tendency of changes in fertility, mortality and nuptiality to offset one another and keep the intrinsic growth rate close to zero, visible in national data, also found regionally and departmentally? Where there are exceptions what light do they throw on the ‘model’ described in Part I? Having reviewed regional patterns, it is then possible to return to more general issues of interpretation and to review the gradual disappearance of the distinctiveness of France in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

Résumé

La première partie de cet article, parue dans le numéro l de la Revue, analysait le déclin de la fécondité française au niveau national. Dans cette seconde et dernière partie, l'homogénéité de l'histoire démographique française au XIXe siècle est testée sur les données régionales. Retrouve-t-on au niveau des régions et des départements la tendance, constatée au niveau national, des évolutions respectives de la fécondité, de la mortalité et de la nuptialité à se compenser de façon à maintenir le taux intrinsèque de croissance proche de zéro ? Quelle lumière les exceptions jettent-elles sur le ‘modèle’ décrit dans la première partie ? Les situations régionales ainsi passées en revue, il est alors possible d'en revenir aux questions plus générales d'interprétation, et d'analyser l'effacement progressif des caractères distinctifs du cas français à la fin du XIXe et au début du XXe siècles.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Ariès, P., 1971, Au pays noir. La population minière du Pas-de-Calais, in: P. Ariès, Histoire des populations françaises et de leurs attitudes devant la vie depuis le XVIIIe siècle (Editions du Seuil, Paris) 69–118.

  2. Bourgeois-Pichat, J., 1965, The general development of the population of France since the eighteenth century, in: D.V. Glass and D.E.C. Eversley, eds., Population in history (Edward Arnold, London) 474–506.

  3. Chaunu, P., 1974, Histoire, science sociale. La durée, l'espace et à l'époque moderne (Société d'édition d'enseignement supérieur, Paris).

  4. Dupâquier, J., 1972, De l'animal à l'homme: Le mécanisme autorégulateur des populations traditionnelles, Revue de l'Institut de Sociologie 45, no. 2, 177–211.

  5. Flandrin, J.-L., 1979, Families in former times. Kinship, household and sexuality (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge).

  6. Haines, M., 1979, Fertility and occupation. Population patterns in industrialization (Academic Press, New York).

  7. Henry, L., 1956, Anciennes familles genevoises. Etude démographique, XVIe-XXe siècle (Presses Universitaires de France, Paris).

  8. Henry, L., 1961, Some data on natural fertility, Eugenics Quarterly 8, no. 2, 81–91.

  9. Henry, L., 1972a, Fécondité des mariages dans le quart sud-ouest de la France de 1720 à 1829 (I), Annales. Economies, Sociétés, Civilisations 27, no. 3, 612–640.

  10. Henry, L., 1972b, Fécondité des mariages dans le quart sud-ouest de la France de 1720 à 1829 (suite), Annales. Economies, Sociétés, Civilisations 27, nos. 4/5, 977–1023.

  11. Knodel, J., 1974, The decline of fertility in Germany, 1871–1939 (Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ).

  12. Knodel, J. and C. Wilson, 1981, The secular increase in fecundity in German village populations: An analysis of reproductive histories of couples married 1750–1899, Population Studies 35, no. 1, 53–84.

  13. Lesthaeghe, R.J., 1977, The decline of Belgian fertility, 1800–1970 (Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ).

  14. Lesthaeghe, R.J., 1980, On the social control of human reproduction, Population and Development Review 6, no. 4, 527–548.

  15. Macfarlane, A., 1978, Modes of reproduction, Journal of Development Studies 14, no. 4, 100–120.

  16. McInnis, A., 1980, The fertility transition in Europe and America, in: J. Rogers, ed., Family building and family planning in pre-industrial societies, Reports from the Family History Group, Department of History, University of Uppsala, no. 1 (Uppsala) 1–15.

  17. Medick, H., 1981, The structures and function of population development under the proto-industrial system, in: P. Kriedte, H. Medick and J. Schlumbohm, Industrialization before industrialization (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge) 74–93.

  18. Mitchell, B.R., 1981, European historical statistics 1750–1975, 2nd revised edition (MacMillan, London).

  19. Ohlin, G., 1961, Mortality, marriage and growth in pre-industrial populations, Population Studies 14, no. 3, 190–197.

  20. Schofield, R.S., 1976, The relationship between demographic structure and environment in pre-industrial Europe, in: W. Conze, ed., Sozialgeschichte der Familie in der Neuzeit Europas (Ernst Klett, Stuttgart) 147–160.

  21. Smith, D. Scott, 1977, A homeostatic demographic regime: Patterns in west European family reconstitution studies, in: R.D. Lee, ed., Population patterns in the past (Academic Press, New York) 19–51.

  22. Smith, T.C., 1977, Nakahara. Family farming and population in a Japanese village, 1717–1830 (Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA).

  23. Spagnoli, P.G., 1977a, Population history from parish monographs: The problem of local demographic variations, Journal of Interdisciplinary History 7, no. 3, 427–452.

  24. Spagnoli, P.G., 1977b, High fertility in mid-nineteenth century France: A multivariate analysis of fertility patterns in the arrondissement of Lille, Research in Economic History 2, 281–336.

  25. van de Walle, E., 1974, The female population of France in the nineteenth century (Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ).

  26. van de Walle, E., 1980, Illegitimacy in France during the nineteenth century, in: P. Laslett, K. Oosterveen and R.M. Smith, eds., Bastardy and its comparative history (Edward Arnold, London) 264–277.

  27. Wrigley, E.A., 1961, Industrial growth and population change (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge).

  28. Wrigley, E.A., 1978, Fertility strategy for the individual and the group, in: C. Tilly, ed., Historical studies of changing fertility (Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ) 135–154.

  29. Wrigley, E.A., 1985, The fall of marital fertility in nineteenth-century France: exemplar or exception? (I), European Journal of Population 1, no. 1, 31–60.

  30. Wrigley, E.A. and R.S. Schofield, 1981, The population history of England 1541–1871. A reconstruction (Edward Arnold, London).

  31. Wrigley, E.A. and R.S. Schofield, 1983, English population history from family reconstitution: Summary results 1600–1799, Population Studies 37, no. 2, 157–184.

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Wrigley, E.A. The fall of marital fertility in nineteenth-century France: Exemplar or exception? (Part II). Eur J Population 1, 141–177 (1985). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01796931

Download citation

Keywords

  • Twentieth Century
  • Nineteenth Century
  • National Level
  • Public Finance
  • Regional Data